Table of Contents

 

Oral Presentations

SPC – Second International URSI Student Paper Competition

ABD – Low Noise Microwave Generation. 5

B01 – Electromagnetic Theory. 7

C01 – Frequency Converters and Mixers. 8

D01 – RFID Technology and Applications. 9

E01 – EMC Interactions in Complex Systems. 11

F01 – State-of-the-Art Developments in Propagation and Remote sensing. 13

G01 – Open Session and Latest Results I 15

H01 – Nonlinear Waves and Turbulence in Plasmas. 17

J01 – Low Frequency Radio Astronomy I – (LOFAR, LWA, MWA, GMRT, any other) 19

K01 – Interaction between EMF and Biosystems: Molecular Modeling and Ultra Short Pulses Biological Effects  21

BT – Passive and Active Metamaterial Constructs and Their Impact on Electrically Small Radiating and Scattering Systems  23

General Lecture 1. 24

A02 – Fractals - Design and Measurement 25

BD1 – Metamaterial Theory. 26

C02 – Advanced Architectures of High-Performance Power Amplifiers for Mobile Communications Systems  28

DB1: Modeling of High Frequency Devices and Circuits. 29

E02 – Lightning and Related Effects I 31

F02 – Attenuation and Depolarization in Satellite and Terrestrial Propagation. 33

G02 – Measuring and Modeling the Ionospheric Electron Density Profile. 35

H02 – Micro/macro-scale Kinetic Processes at Boundary Layers in Terrestrial and Planetary Environments  37

JT – Exploring the Epoch of Reionization with Low-Frequency Radio Telescopes (in memory of Donald C. Backer) 39

KBE – Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Breast Imaging. 40

J02 – Low Frequency Radio Astronomy II 42

CD – Advanced RF Integrated Circuits. 44

A03 – Time Scale. 45

B03 – Hybrid Methods (in memory of Robert G. Kouyoumjian) 47

CB – Antenna Channel Interactions for Future Wireless Communications. 49

D03 – Lasers. 50

E03 – High Power and Intentional EMI (in memory of Carl E. Baum) 52

F03 – Tropospheric Modeling for Radiowave Propagation and Radar Remote Sensing. 54

G03 - Recent Developments in and Coordinated Studies with Incoherent Scatter Radars. 56

H03 – Wave-particle Interactions and Their Effects on Planetary Radiation Belts I 58

J03 – Technology Development for the SKA Program.. 60

K03 – Environmental EMF Exposure Assessment 62

C05 – Radio Science for Information Security and Social Safety. 64

KT – Epidemiology of RF and Cancer 65

A04 – EM Materials. 66

B04 – Electromagnetic Field Transformations for Measurements and Numerical Methods. 68

B05 – Theoretical and Numerical Issues in Electromagnetics. 69

C06 – Green Communications. 70

DBC – Signal Processing Antennas. 71

EGH – Terrestrial and Planetary Electromagnetics. 72

F04 – Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Vegetation (in honor of Roger H. Lang) 73

G04 – Practical Applications and Techniques for the Use of Ionosonde Data. 74

HT – Major developments in our understanding of electric antennas in space plasmas. 75

J04 – Space and Moon-based radio astronomy: science and technology. 76

H04 – Wave-particle Interactions and Their Effects on Planetary Radiation Belts II 77

AB1 – Antenna Measurement 78

B06 – Multiscale Modeling and Applications to Composite Materials. 80

CBD – Vehicular Communications. 82

DB2 – Plasmonics. 83

E05 – Spectrum Management 84

F05 – Radar Applications: Polarimetric Interferometry, Smart Systems and Propagation Impairment 86

G05 – New Science Initiatives on Irregularities and Scintillation using Beacon Satellites. 88

HG1 – Radio Sounding in Ionospheres and Magnetospheres and Associated Plasma Phenomena I 90

J05 – Sun and Solar System Science. 92

K04 – Biomedical Applications: Diagnostic Sensing. 93

CT – Six-port Wave Correlator Theory and Practical Application to RF Network Analysis. 95

General Lecture 2. 96

AB2 - Antenna Measurement 97

B07 – Adaptive Antennas. 99

CHGBDJK – Solar Power Satellites and Wireless Power Transmission. 101

DT – RFID Technology and Applications. 103

EB – Electromagnetic Modelling for EMC.. 104

F06 – Remote Sensing of Oceans, Cryosphere and Related Topics. 106

G06 – Distributed Ground and Space-based Observatories for Space Weather Studies. 108

HG2 – Radio Sounding in Ionospheres and Magnetospheres and Associated Plasma Phenomena II 110

J06 – Signal Processing, Calibration and Imaging in Radio Astronomy. 112

K05 – Interactions with Human Body and Implanted Systems. 114

DB3 – Metamaterial Applications. 116

AGJ – Pulsar Timing and Time Transfer 118

BD2 – Numerical Techniques for Multi-Physics Electromagnetics. 120

CA – Propagation Measurement Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Systems  122

D07 – Micro and Nano Photonics. 124

E07 – EMC in Wire and Wireless Communication Systems. 126

F07– Scintillations, Fading, Ducting, and Remote Sensing and Propagation for Non-Precipitating Atmosphere  128

G07 – Ionospheric Research for Radio Systems Support 130

HG3 – Active Experiments in the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere I 132

J07 – Observatory Reports. 134

K06 – Biological Effects of EMF: Cellular, Animal 137

AT – Single Electron Tunneling (SET) 139

BJ – Very Large Antenna Arrays for Radio Astronomy. 140

C10 – Wireless Communication Technologies for Standardization. 141

D08 – Nonlinear Optics and Guided Wave Devices. 142

E08 – Surveys of the Electromagnetic Environment 143

FT – Remote Sensing, Systems and Applications: Present and Future. 144

G08 – Open Session and Latest Results II 145

GHE1 – Lightning Induced Effects in the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere, I 147

HG4 – Active Experiments in the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere II 148

J08 – Spectrum Management Issues and RFI Mitigation. 150

K07 – Biomedical Applications: Imaging and Brain Mapping. 151

F08 – System Aspects: Antennas, Calibration, and Interference. 153

AB3 – Antenna Measurement 154

B10 – Beam Methods. 156

C11 – Power Amplifier Considerations for Software Radio Systems. 157

DAF1 – Enabling Technologies for Millimeter and THz Wave Applications. 159

E09 – Lightning and Related Effects II 161

F09 – Disaster Management 162

G09 – CAWSES-2 Ionospheric and Thermospheric Campaigns and Results. 164

H09 – Laboratory Simulation of Space and Dust-related Phenomena. 165

Grote Reber Award Function. 167

K08 – Biomedical Application: Healing and Therapy. 168

ET – EMC Measurements in the Time-Domain. 170

JG – Ionospheric Calibration for Radio Astronomy (in memory of William E. Gordon) 171

General Lecture 3. 172

AD – Optical Frequency Metrology. 173

B11 – Inverse Scattering and Imaging. 175

C12 – Multiple Antenna Technologies for Communication Systems and Radar 177

DAF2 – Millimeter and THz Wave Applications, including NTU, security, communication, sensors, spectroscopy, etc. 179

E10 – Stochastic Techniques in EMC.. 181

FG – Ionospheric and Tropospheric Effects in Precision GNSS. 183

GT – Sprites and Energetic Radiation Above Thunderstorms. 185

H10 – Waves as Signatures of Inflowing Plasma Interaction with Solar System Bodies. 186

J10 – Mm and Sub-mm Science and Technology with a Special Focus on ALMA. 188

KAE – Anatomical Human Models Development and Exposure Assessment 190

GHE2 – Lightning Induced Effects in the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere, II 192

AC – Communication Metrology. 194

B12 – Novel Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetics. 196

C13 – Signal Processing Advances for Cognitive Radio. 198

DF – Hyperspectral Sensing and LIDAR.. 200

E11 – EMC and Signal Integrity. 201

FCA – Channel Modeling, Measurements and Characterization in Communications and Remote Sensing  203

GHE3 – Electromagnetic Effects in Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling. 204

H11 – Open session. 206

J11 – New Observations and Results. 208

KB – Uncertainty Management in Numerical Calculation and EM Field Dosimetry. 210

Public Lecture. 212

Poster Presentations

BP1 – Poster session 1. 213

CP – Poster session. 220

Poster: RFID and Signal Processing Antennas. 223

Poster: High frequency Devices and Multiphysics Techniques. 225

EP1 – Poster session 1. 227

FP1 – Poster session 1 – Focus: Remote Sensing. 229

GP1 – Poster session 1. 230

HP1 – Poster session 1. 239

JP1 – Poster session 1. 244

KP1 – Poster session 1. 248

AP – Poster Session. 250

BP2 – Poster Session 2. 252

Poster: Photonics. 260

Poster: Metamaterials and Microwave Techniques. 262

EP2 – Poster Session 2. 264

FP2 – Poster Session 2 – Focus: Propagation. 266

GP2 – Poster Session 2. 267

HP2 – Poster Session 2. 276

JP2 – Poster Session 2. 281

KP2 – Poster Session 2. 284

Author Index 286


 

 

 

SPC – Second International URSI Student Paper Competition

Session Chairs: Steven C. Reising, Birsen Saka

Session    SPC

Type        Oral Presentation

Schedule Monday, August 15, 13:00-16:40

Room       Sultan 3

13:00        SPC.1 A FEMTOSECOND-PRECISION, FIBER-OPTIC TIMING TRANSFER SYSTEM WITH LONG-TERM STABLE, POLARIZATION MAINTAINING OUTPUT

J. A. Cox1, F. X. Kärtner1,21Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; 2 Hamburg University, Germany

A fiber-based, all-optical system for femtosecond-precision, long-term, timing transfer and synchronization of electronics and lasers at the kilometer scale is presented. The system incorporates a fiber polarization controller for long-term synchronization of remote lasers, and uses an optical timing detector based on balanced optical cross-correlation. We demonstrate continuous, unaided timing distribution over 168-hours with 5 fs rms precision over 340 m of fiber. Also, timing transfer from local to remote laser for 5 hours with 4 fs rms precision is shown. A study of linear and non-linear effects impacting performance is presented.

13:20         SPC.2 AN INVESTIGATION OF WHISTLER INTENSITIES ABOVE THUNDERSTORMS

J. Fiser1, J. Chum1, G. Diendorfer2, M. Parrot3, and O. Santolik1,4, 1Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic; 2Austrian Electrotechnical Association, Austria;  3LPC2E/CNRS, France; 4Charles University, Czech Republic

We study a penetration of whistlers to the ionosphere. We developed an automatic method for assigning causative lightning to fractional-hop whistlers observed on the DEMETER satellite. Processing data from 364 passes of the satellite over Europe, we found that at nighttime, a mean whistler intensity is approximately three times larger than at daytime. A maximum of whistler intensity is shifted approximately one degree from the satellite magnetic footprint owing to the oblique propagation. Calculations of wave attenuation made using IRI2007 and MSIS models show very similar result in a ratio of nighttime and daytime intensities.

13:40         SPC.3 CONFINING THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF TGF EMISSION

T. Gjesteland1, N. Ostgaard1, A. B. Collier2, B. E. Carlson2, M. B. Cohen3, N. G. Lehtinen31University of Bergen, Norway; 2University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 3Stanford University, USA

We present the first constraints on the TGF emission cone, based on accurately geolocated TGFs. The distribution of the observation angles for 106 TGFs are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. We find that TGF emissions within an isotropic half angle >30deg can generate the observations. In addition, 36 events are used for spectral analysis. The result is a significant softening of the TGF energy spectrum for large observation angles, which is consistent with a TGF emission half angle <40deg. The constraints 30-40deg indicates that the electrons which produce TGFs are accelerated in nearly vertical electric fields.

 

14:00         SPC.4 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE AIRY PULSE BEAM

Y. Kaganovsky, E. Heyman, Tel Aviv University, Israel

The Airy beam (AiB) has attracted a lot of attention recently because of its intriguing features such as propagation along curved trajectories in free-space and the weak diffraction. Here we derive the ultra wide band Airy pulsed beam (AiPB) which is the extension of the AiB into the time domain. We introduce a frequency scaling that renders the ray skeleton of the field frequency independent, thus insuring that the resulting AiPB is non-dispersive and preserves the intriguing features of the time-harmonic AiB. An exact closed form solution is derived using the spectral theory of transients (STT).

 

14:20         SPC.5 ACCURATE PHOTONIC ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

A. Khilo1, C. M. Sorace1, J. R. Birge1, F. X. Kärtner1,21Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA2Hamburg University, Germany

Photonic analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are attracting significant interest due to promise of overcoming the problem of aperture jitter and improving ADC performance level by orders of magnitude. This work examines several critical factors which define the accuracy of an optically-sampled wavelength-demultiplexed ADC built on a silicon chip using silicon photonic technology. These factors are the optical power-dependent shot noise, optical power-dependent nonlinearities due to two-photon and free-carrier absorption in silicon, and nonlinear transfer function of a silicon modulator. Ways to reduce the impact of these factors on ADC accuracy are considered.

14:40        Break

15:00         SPC.6 RIGOROUS APPROACH TO ANALYSIS OF 2-D ELECTROSTATIC-FIELD PROBLEMS FOR MULTI-CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS

G. Safonova, E. Vynogradova, Macquarie University, Australia

The two-dimensional body potential problem is rigorously solved with emphasis on electrostatics. By the Method of Analytical Regularization, the solution is obtained from coupled second kind infinite systems of linear algebraic equations that are effectively solved numerically by a truncation method. A combination of the fast convergence with fast and accurate computation of the matrix elements makes the computational routine extremely efficient: in most cases the computational time measures a few seconds. As an example, the developed algorithm is applied to a calculation of the capacitance matrix for N arbitrary profiled charged cylinders surrounded by a grounded cylindrical shield.

15:20         SPC.7 MODEL ORDER REDUCTION METHODS FOR MULTIVARIATE PARAMETERIZED DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

K. Stavrakakis1, T. Wittig2, W. Ackermann1, T. Weiland11Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany; 2Computer Simulation Technology AG, Germany

Electrodynamic field simulations in the frequency domain typically require the solution of large dynamical systems. Model order reduction (MOR) techniques offer a fast approach to approximate the system impedance with respect to the frequency parameter. During the design process, it is desirable to vary specified parameters like the frequency, geometry details or material parameters, giving rise to multivariate dynamical systems. In this work, multivariate MOR methods are presented for multivariate parameterized systems based on the finite integration technique. The methods are applied to numerical examples with both geometrical and material variations.

15:40         SPC.8 A UNIFIED MICROWAVE RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODEL WITH JACOBIAN FOR GENERAL PLANAR STRATIFIED MEDIA

M. Tian, A. J. Gasiewski, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA

A unified microwave radiative transfer (UMRT) model is presented for computing the thermal radiation from geophysical media comprised of planar multilayer spherical scatterers of arbitrary electrical size and density. UMRT employs discrete ordinate-eigenanalysis to solve the vector radiative transfer equation. Importantly, UMRT inherits the symmetrization, analytical diagonalization, and factorization techniques from the discrete ordinate tangent linear radiative transfer (DOTLRT) model devised by Voronovich et al., to ensure accuracy, numerical stability, and computational efficiency, along with Jacobian capability. However UMRT extends the applicability of DOTLRT by including the dense media radiative transfer theory and linear temperature profiles within slabs.

16:00         SPC.9 A COMPRESSED SENSING APPROACH TO OBSERVING DISTRIBUTED RADAR TARGETS

R. Volz, S. Close, Stanford University, USA

Compressed sensing, a method which relies on sparsity to reconstruct signals with relatively few measurements, has the potential to greatly improve observation of distributed radar targets. We extend the theoretical work of others by investigating the practical problems of implementing this approach for distributed targets, first examining a discrete linear radar model suitable for compressed sensing and then discussing an example of this technique used on existing data. Potential benefits include higher possible range resolution, complete filtering of noise without sidelobes or artifacts, and the ability to identify different Doppler shifts within the same range window of a single pulse.

16:20         SPC.10 ANTENNA DESIGN AND CHANNEL MEASUREMENTS FOR ON-BODY COMMUNICATIONS AT 60 GHZ

X. Y. Wu, Y. Nechayev, P. S. Hall, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

On-body communication is of increasing interest for a number of applications, such as medical-sensor networks, emergency-service workers, and personal communications. This paper reviews 60 GHz on-body communication and its benefits and challenges. Two novel low profile high gain, end-fire wearable antennas are then described. Measurements with an experimental phantom and real human body are presented. Results show antennas achieve good performance close to a phantom. Shadowing effects and polarisation issues for on-body communications at 60 GHz are discussed.

16:40          End of the Session

 

 

ABD – Low Noise Microwave Generation

Session Chair: Michael Tobar

Session     ABD

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Dolmabahçe C

08:00         ABD.1  LOW PHASE NOISE MICROWAVE GENERATION WITH FIBER-BASED FEMTOSECOND LASERS

W. Zhang, T. Li, A. Haboucha, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, Y. Lecoq, LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Paris, France;  A. Luiten, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia;  R. Holzwarth, Menlo Systems GmbH, Martinsried, Germany  

When a femtosecond laser is servoed onto an ultra-stable cw laser, its repetition rate acquire an extreme spectral purity. By photodetecting the pulses, we are able to generate ultra-low phase noise microwave signals and use it for cutting edge metrology experiments. We present our past and present work to generate microwave signal with very low degradation from the limit imposed by the reference oscillator, using a highly reliable fiber-based system. The latest developments involve employing an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, reduced relative intensity noise of the laser, and studies of the photodetector amplitude to-phase conversion.

08:20         ABD.2  CRYOGENIC SAPPHIRE MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS FOR SPACE, METROLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS

V. Giordano, S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, Y. Kersal, E. Rubiola, M. Mrad, Institut FEMTO-ST, Besancon, France;  C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK;  W. Schfer, TimeTech GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany  

We recently demonstrated a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator presenting a relative short term frequency stability better than 3e-15 for 1 s < t < 1000 s and achieving 4.5e-15 for one day integration. This CSO incorporates a pulse-tube cooler instead of a bath cryostat thus eliminating the need for regular supplies and manual transferring of liquid helium. The advent of reliable and cryocooled CSO open the possibility to implement such an ultra-stable reference not only in metrological laboratories with liquid helium facilities but also in remote sites like base stations for space navigation, VBLI antenna sites, ...

08:40         ABD.3  CHARACTERIZATION OF TIMING JITTER IN ULTRAFAST FIBER AND TI:S LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM

J. A. Cox, A. J. Benedick, F. X. Kaertner, MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States

The timing jitter of erbium doped, fiber optic and Titanium:Sapphire lasers, both passively mode-locked ultrafast lasers at 80 MHz, is measured with unprecedented resolution and bandwidth. Using the balanced optical cross-correlator timing detector, we found a total integrated timing jitter of 2.2 fs rms [100 Hz, 1 MHz] for the fiber supercontinuum and only 55 as rms [100 Hz, 10 MHz] jitter for the Ti:S laser. This measurement of fiber laser jitter is an absolute measurement, since the jitter of the fiber laser was measured against the Ti:S laser, which is negligible.

09:00         ABD.4  OPTICAL FREQUENCY COMBS FOR LOW PHASE NOISE MICROWAVE GENERATION

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, United States

An optical frequency comb locked to a stable optical reference can serve as a source for microwave signals having very low close-to-carrier phase noise. This has recently been confirmed by comparing two independent systems, yielding an absolute phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset from a 10 GHz carrier. The corresponding timing jitter is 760 attoseconds, integrated from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Here we describe the system architecture, as well as technical and fundamental noise limitations.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         ABD.5  PRECISION NOISE MEASUREMENTS AND OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY STABILIZATION

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, The University of Western Australia, Perth,WA, Australia

This paper summarizes recent advances in two closely related research fields: precision noise measurements and generation of low-phase noise microwave signals. The progress achieved in those fields over the past decade was largely associated with the applications of microwave circuit interferometry, which is a powerful noise measurement technique born out of the quest to detect gravitational waves in the beginning of 90s.

10:00         ABD.6  AN S/C-BAND SIGE HBT DIFFERENTIAL VCO USING A NOVEL HPF-TYPE RESONATOR COMPRISED OF THE CHIP INDUCTORS FOR A HIGHER OSCILLATION FREQUENCY

Y. Itoh, Y. Tashiro, Shonan Institute Of Technology, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan

An S/C-band SiGe HBT differential VCO has been developed for the next generation wireless radios. It employs a novel HPF-type resonator having a parallel LC circuit for higher frequency oscillation. The novel HPF-type resonator can be easily constructed from only the chip inductors by using their parasitic capacitance. The differential VCO has achieved an oscillation from 3.36 to 4.03GHz, a phase noise of less than -100dBc/Hz at 100kHz offset for VCC=3V and IC=2.93mA. This is the first report on the differential VCO using only chip inductors as a resonator element.

10:20         ABD.7  ON THE QUALITY FACTOR OF A LOW-LOSS PARALLEL-PLATE RESONATOR BASED ON COMPLEMENTARY METAMATERIALS

D. Sjoberg, M. Gustafsson, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Several proposals have been made during the last ten years on size-independent resonators by using metamaterials for phase compensation. In this paper, we present an estimate of the quality factor of a simple parallel-plate resonator, based on realistic assumptions such as linear, passive, causal, time-translational invariant metamaterials, and lossy walls. It is found that the quality factor of the resonator depends on whether the losses of the material or the metal walls are dominating: in the former case, there is no size dependence, in the latter case, the size dependence is similar to a vacuum-filled resonator.

10:40          End of the Session

B01 – Electromagnetic Theory

Session Chairs: Mats Gustafsson, Gerhard Kristensson

Session     B01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-09:20

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

08:00         B01.1  SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE AIRY PULSED BEAM

Y. Kaganovsky, E. Heyman, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel

The Airy beam (AiB) has attracted a lot of attention recently because of its intriguing features such as propagation along curved trajectories in free-space and the weak diffraction. Here we derive the ultra wide band Airy pulsed beam (AiPB) which is the extension of the AiB into the time domain. We introduce a frequency scaling that renders the ray skeleton of the field frequency independent, thus insuring that the resulting AiPB is non-dispersive and preserves the intriguing features of the time-harmonic AiB. An exact closed form solution is derived using the spectral theory of transients (STT).

08:20         B01.2  DOES EVANESCENT GAIN EXIST?

J. O. Grepstad1,2, J. Skaar1,2;  1Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2University Graduate Center, Kjeller, Norway

We have investigated the situation where light incident from a passive high-refractive-index medium is totally reflected off an infinite half space with gain. The question of whether or not evanescent gain can prevail in this case, has been at issue for 40 years. We argue that the controversy can be resolved for week gain media using the Laplace transform, combined with a detailed analysis of analytic and global properties of the permittivity function of the active medium.

08:40         B01.3  NEW TYPE OF GYROTROPY IN GRAPHENE - COMPARISON WITH GYROTROPY IN PLASMAS

D. L. Sounas, C. Caloz, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Canada

The gyrotropic properties of magnetically biased graphene are compared to these of magnetically biased plasmas. Graphene exhibits a significant polarization rotation phenomenon at frequencies below the cyclotron resonance, where plasmas do not provide any polarization rotation. At frequencies above the cyclotron resonance the behavior of graphene is similar to this of plasmas. Graphene allows the control of its gyrotropic properties via a static electric field, while keeping the bias magnetic field constant, in contrast to plasmas where the variation of the bias magnetic field is required.

09:00         B01.4  THE CLASS OF DECOMPOSABLE MEDIA IN FOUR-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATION

I. V. Lindell, Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo, Finland;  L. Bergamin, KP&B GmbH, Bern, Switzerland;  A. Favaro, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom  

TE/TM decomposition of electromagnetic fields in uniaxial anisotropic media is generalized applying four-dimensional differential-form formalism by requiring orthogonality between the field two-form and two given bivectors. Conditions are derived for the electromagnetic medium allowing the decomposition and found to define three subclasses of media. The medium dyadics of two of the subclasses satisfy equations of the second order while that defining the third subclass satisfies an equation of the first order. Dispersion equations for plane waves are derived and the corresponding eigenpolarizations are found for all three subclasses.

09:20          End of the Session

C01 – Frequency Converters and Mixers

Session Chair: Kenji Itoh

Session     C01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:20

Room        Dolmabahçe A

08:00         C01.1  KA BAND DIRECT MODULATION USING SUB HARMONIC MIXER FOR SATELLITE APPLICATION

S. Gupta, B. Batra, N. Kumar, DAIICT, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

In this paper, a KaBand direct modulator using subHarmonic mixer is designed and analysed. KaBand direct modulator comprises of WilkinsonPowerDivider, LangeCoupler, SubHarmonic mixer using APDP and Microstrip filters. A subharmonic mixer operates at half the LO frequency eliminating the need for frequency doublers, a filter and an amplifier at LO circuit. It provides better conversion loss and rejects odd harmonic mixing products. Coupled line topology was selected to get sharp cut off in minimum length of the circuit and for its compactness. Here QPSK technique used two BPSK modulator systems to get various advantages related with data rate and bandwidth.

08:20         C01.2  SERIES SWITCHED RESONATOR BASED DUAL-BAND OSCILLATOR

V. Sharma, R. Yadav, N. P. Pathak, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India

Multi-band oscillator plays a crucial role in modern multi-band wireless radios. The concept of series switched resonator is introduced as a means to achieve multi-band operation in an oscillator. Using the concept, a prototype dual-band oscillator was implemented using single transistor. Switching between two desired frequencies was achieved using a semiconductor diode. The measured characteristics exhibited adequate phase noise performance while providing constant power output for both the design frequencies.

08:40         C01.3  POLE-MOVEMENT IN OSCILLATORS AND ENERGY BALANCE PRINCIPLE

S. Pal1, S. Chatterjee2, B. Biswas1;  1Sir J.C. Bose School of Engineering, SKFGI, Chandannagar, West Bengal, India; 2Kanailal Vidyamandir, Chandannagar, West Bengal, India

Pole-movement in oscillators have been reinvestigated from the perspective of oscillator nonlinearity, harmonic distortion and soft-self and hard-self excitation. Quasi-linearization technique and energy balance technique have been used to evaluate the extent of back and forth pole-movement around the imaginary axis of the complex frequency plane with reference to a Wien Bridge Oscillator, 22.20 kHz and 6.0% distortion. Experimental results have been presented in support of theory. A modified Barkhausen Criterion has been proposed for the nonlinear and non-steady situation of an oscillator demonstrating the transient behavior during the growth of oscillation.

09:00         C01.4  NEW OBSERVATIONS ON BIAS CURRENT VARIATION OF OP AMP OSCILLATORS

S. Pal1, S. Chatterjee2, B. Biswas1;  1Sir J.C. Bose School of Engineering, SKFGI, Chandannagore, West Bengal, India; 2Kanailal Vidyamandir, Chandannagore, West Bengal, India

A new phenomenon called Bias Current Hump in an injection locked op amp oscillator. This phenomenon has been used to design a tracking demodulator that does not require a phase locked nor does it require a discriminator for the demodulation of an FM signal.This paper reports the result that shows that there are situations where the bias point dos not remain invariant. It can be varied both in time and frequency in a controlled manner. This has led us to develop a tracking demodulator with extremely low distortion. Experimental results have been presented in support of the theoretical conjecture.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         C01.5  IQ OSCILLATORS: TRACKING AM AND FM DEMODULATORS

B. Biswas1, S. Chatterjee2, S. Pal1;  1Sir J.C. Bose School of Engineering, SKFGI, Chandannagar, West Bengal, India; 2Kanailal Vidyamandir, Chandannagar, West Bengal, India

The behaviour of a quadrature oscillator when subjected to a synchronizing signal has been analysed and experimentally studied in depth. A non linear theory of the quadrature oscillator has been presented It has led to the development of a single shot tracking FM discriminator with excellent interference rejection capability. It can also be used as a phase locked demodulator exploiting tracking capability. The signal recovered from the AM-FM signal has a better signal-to-interference-ratio.

10:00         C01.6  GAIN SENSITIVITIES OF A MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER WITH RESPECT TO THE MICROSTRIP PARAMETERS

S. Demirel, F. Gunes, Yýldýz Technical University, Istanbul, TURKEY

This paper presents a method for the sensitivity analysis of the gain with respect to the width and length of a microstrip line used in any position of the input /or output matching circuit of a microwave amplifier. The method is applied to a low-noise amplifier and the resultant typical sensitivity variations are also given. This work shows which microstrip lines are sensitive with respect width/or length changes, therefore extra care should be taken for them during the practical realization stage.

10:20          End of the Session

D01 – RFID Technology and Applications

Session Chair: Smail Tedjini

Session     D01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Dolmabahçe B

08:00         D01.1  IMPLANTED RFID TAG FOR PASSIVE VASCULAR MONITORING

C. Occhiuzzi, G. Contri, G. Marrocco, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Roma, Italy

Starting from the physical evidence that passive UHF-RFID tags may be used as self-sensing devices to detect the state of the tagged object, this contribution address the monitoring of human vascular system by means of augmented Stents. It is shown through simulations and experimentations how transforming a mechanical implant, used to recover a stenosis, into a sensor and communication device embedding RFID chips for the remote detection of the quality of the vein itself and to prevent restenosis pathology.

08:20         D01.2  COMPARISON OF EXTENDED AND UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER FOR LOCALIZATION OF PASSIVE UHF RFID LABELS

T. Nick, J. Goetze, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany;  W. John, System Integration Laboratory, Paderborn, Germany;  G. Stoenner, Deutsche Post AG, Darmstadt, Germany  

Due to the increased use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in different fields of application it is reasonable to explore the benefit that can be obtained by the simultaneous localization of RFID tags. This paper describes the localization of a passive UHF RFID tag via Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) using the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values. Simulation results based on measurements show that UKF achieves higher localization accuracies than EKF. When using four antennae for the localization the error of UKF is about 28cm and 75cm for EKF.

08:40         D01.3  SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR WIRELESS DIELECTRIC REFLECTOMETRY WITH MODULATED SCATTERERS

J.-C. Bolomey, Paris Sud University, Gif-sur-Yvette, France;  S. Capdevila, L. Jofre, UPC Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain;  S. Tedjini, Grenoble-INP, Valence, France  

Modulated scatterer systems are increasingly considered for remore sensing applications. This paper is focused on cases where the sensing mechanism is expected to result from the change of the probe impedance with the surrounding refractive index. An analytical-based approach allows to obtain the modulated probe response sensitivity to the refractive index. Inspired from RCS-based antenna impedance measurement techniques, the ternary modulation scheme is shown to remove specific difficulties inherent to wireless reflectometry, such as misalignment between the probe and reader antennas. Center-loaded dipoles and meander-line antennas are considered as test cases.

09:00         D01.4  INDOOR LOCALISATION FOR COMPLEX BUILDING DESIGNS USING PASSIVE RFID TECHNOLOGY

F. M. Khan, K. Menzel, National University of Ireland, University College Cork (UCC), Cork, Ireland

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that has proved its importance over the years with ever increasing research and advancements in place. Applications of RFID are exploited in many different industries ranging from Supply Chain and Retail to applications in Medicine and Military. This paper presents an algorithmic technique for indoor localization using Passive RFID Technology. A mathematical explanation of the algorithm is explained with simulated results of positioning accuracy. Hardware design and implementation methodology is discussed afterwards. The application usage of this technique can be in areas of medicine and the retail sector.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         D01.5  PAPER-BASED, INKJET-PRINTED, TEXT-MEANDERED UHF RESONANT ANTENNAS FOR RFID APPLICATIONS

M. Marroncelli, D. Trinchero, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy;  M. Tentzeris, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA  

In this paper different antennas manufacturing and designing techniques are combined with the aim of building useful radiators resonating in the UHF band. The meander lines techniques is exploited in this work with the exception of letters as meander elements. The technologically advanced and already well established silver inkjet printing technique is used for antenna realization. An unusual paper-based substrate is chosen, according with the concepts to lower costs, simplify fabrication procedures and advance usability, towards the realization of antenna for RFID applications. All design phases are discussed and a complete test of the proposed antennas is performed.

10:00         D01.6  METALLIC LETTER IDENTIFICATION BASED ON RADAR APPROACH

A. Vena, T. Singh, S. Tedjini, E. Perret, Grenoble-Inp LCIS, Valence, France

A new concept of letter identification by use of RF wave is presented in this paper. Since letters have various shapes, their Electromagnetic signature can be identified independently. To measure the electromagnetic signature of each letter, a wideband measurement set-up has been used with a frequency span until 10 GHz. It is based on a bi-static radar system with a pulse generator as source, compatible with UWB regulations, and a real time sampling oscilloscope as receiver. The greatest interest of using metallic letters is based on combining the visual identification, with the remote Electro Magnetic identification.

10:20         D01.7  A NOVEL XTEA BASED AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL FOR RFID SYSTEMS

G. N. Khan, F. Yuan, J. Yu, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada

RFID technology has been widely used in logistic, automation and authentication applications. It still has many potential issues of privacy and security. We present a novel XTEA encryption based authentication protocol. Analysis of its security and privacy is performed using FPGA based prototyping. Different attack models are implemented, and the results show that the protocol is robust and safe against major attacks. The protocol is analyzed and compared with other two similar protocols, Analysis of its performance as compared to related works show its advantages in code size, clock cycle, communication cost and scalability.

10:40          End of the Session

E01 – EMC Interactions in Complex Systems

Session Chairs: Flavio Canavero, Christopher Holloway

Session     E01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Galata

08:00         E01.1  DEALING WITH COMPLEXITY IN EMC MODELLING

C. Christopoulos, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

The paper addresses features of EMC making it a challenging modeling application. These include the very broadband nature of the interactions encompassing regions of non-linearity and uncertain parameter values; the inherent uncertainties in geometrical configurations and dimensions of the multitude of components; and the ubiquitous presence of multi-scale features. The challenge is to address complexity without resorting to extremely lengthy computations which require enormous computational resources and tedious, time consuming problem definition and input data preparation. The emphasis of this paper is on the embedding of macromodels to describe complex materials and the treatment of uncertainties.

08:20         E01.2  MODELING COMPLEX SYSTEMS FOR EMC APPLICATIONS BY CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTIES

F. Paladian, P. Bonnet, S. Lallechere, 1Clermont University, Blaise Pascal University, LASMEA, Aubire, France

The objective of this work is to present a new approach to the random modeling of complex systems in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC). This contribution aims to compute high orders statistics and study the impact of parameter uncertainties on various EMC topics including transmission lines, radiation and immunity problems. The agreement between results from the Stochastic Collocation (SC) method and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations guarantee the SC accuracy and robustness. The combination of SC with computations from analytical and tridimensional numerical models (Finite Difference in Time Domain) underlines its advantages (efficiency, non-intrusive integration).

08:40         E01.3  ON THE USE OF THE MONTE CARLO METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD SIMULATION

A. Kreth, O. Doering, E. Genender, H. Garbe, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover, Germany

The knowledge of electromagnetic interferences plays a significant role in todays research and development. However, the actual realization of large systems may vary or even be unknown. Hence, the electromagnetic field of the system has to be estimated statistically. Therefore this work describes how a statistical field simulation of the electromagnetic field of the system can be accomplished by modeling the system with subsystems and varying the parameters of these subsystems.

09:00         E01.4  STATISTICAL ESTIMATION OF ANTENNA GAIN FROM MEASUREMENTS CARRIED OUT IN A MODE-STIRRED REVERBERATION CHAMBER

C. Lemoine, E. Amador, P. Besnier, J. Sol, J.-M. Floc'h, IETR / INSA de Rennes, Rennes, France;  A. Laisne, DGA - TA, Balma, France  

This paper proposes for the first time a method for estimating the gain of an antenna in a mode-stirred reverberation chamber. The method is based on the estimation of the Ricean K-factor which provides the relative transmitting power level of the line-of-sight path. Experimental results are compared with anechoic chamber measurements using a set of different antennas.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         E01.5  MEASUREMENT OF SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF ELECTRICALLY SMALL ENCLOSURES

C. L. Holloway, C. Dunlap, J. Ladbury, J. Gordon, J. Coder, G. Koepke, NIST, Boulder, Co, United States

In the following we propose a technique for determining the shielding effectiveness of an electrically small enclosure with an electrically small aperture. In particular, we use this technique to explore the shielding characteristics of a rectangular box used to shield devices. Measurement and simulation results are presented in order to validate the technique and to show that, when a source is placed inside the box, different aperture shapes on the face of the enclosure will produce different internal and external field patterns, and have different shielding characteristics.

10:00         E01.6  NUMERICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC MODELING OF CHEMICAL PLANTS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF RADIO FREQUENCY IGNITION HAZARDS

G. Spadacini, S. A. Pignari, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy

In this work, electromagnetic simulation of electrically-large chemical plants is used to investigate RF ignition hazards. The proposed analysis is aimed at refining results and procedures detailed in the European Standard CLC/TR 50427, which foresees the use of elemental antennas (loops and half-wave dipoles) for the estimation, via closed-form approximated formulas, of the RF power induced by an impinging electromagnetic field.

10:20         E01.7  MODELING OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING TO ELECTRO-EXPLOSIVE DEVICES

N. Mora, F. Rachidi, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland;  N. Pena, National University of Colombia, Bogota, Colombia;  F. Roman, Los Andes University, Bogota, Colombia  

In this work, we present a general methodology for modeling the coupling of electromagnetic fields with electro-explosive devices (EEDs). We discuss the assumptions and the necessary conditions to achieve the maximization of electromagnetic response of a canonical EED. The product of the EED (E being the electric field and the duration) is presented as a means for determining the electromagnetic environment that could lead to its activation from an external impinging electromagnetic field.

10:40          End of the Session

F01 – State-of-the-Art Developments in Propagation and Remote sensing

Session Chairs: Madhu Chandra, Roger Lang

Session     F01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Haliç

08:00         F01.1  RADIOMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING OF THE ENVIRONMENT

R. H. Lang, George Washington Uniiversity, Washington, Dc, United States

Three new L band passive satellite missions to measure sea surface salinity and soil moisture are reviewed. The first is the ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. It features the first spaceborne synthetic aperture antenna with enhanced resolution and multiple incident angle looks. The second is the NASA Aquarius mission to sense sea surface salinity with a 0.2psu accuracy and an on-board radar to correct for surface roughnesss. The last is NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to measure soil moisture with a 6m mesh antenna for increased resolution and a radar to enhance its performance.

08:20         F01.2  RF ELECTROMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS IN A RURAL ENVIRONMENT

H. Sizun, URSI-France, Lannion, France;  P. Maliet, Pleumeur Bodou Radio Observation Association, Pleumeur Bodou, France  

Radioelectrical power measurements taken in the 20 MHz - 3 GHz frequency band in a typical rural environment are presented. They show that the spectrum is very clean outside frequency band allocated to land, aeronautical and maritime radiocommunication and more particularly in frequency bands allocated to radio-astronomy, spatial research, remote sensing, radio navigation. They show that the site environment does not suffer from strong electromagnetic fields able to create non linearity in the relevant frequency band. Calculated to the antenna level, electric fields are weak compared to standard limit values legal in France and in the European Union.

08:40         F01.3  JOINT ANALYSIS OF RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE FROM SMOS MEASUREMENTS AND FROM AIRBORNE OBSERVATIONS

M. Aksoy, J. Park, J. T. Johnson, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been providing L-band brigthness temperatures since November 2009. However, SMOS has been affected by significant levels of radio frequency interference. Since SMOS has a single frequency channel and low time resolution, RFI mitigation is a challenging problem especially for low level RFI. In this paper, possible RFI detection strategies using SMOS full polarimetric data are discussed by utilizing an airborne campaign called SMAPVEX08. The results suggest that polarimetry can be used as an indication of some RFI sources although it may not reflect RFI characteristics in general.

09:00         F01.4  CHARACTERIZATION OF RADAR TARGETS BASED ON ULTRA WIDEBAND POLARIMETRIC TRANSIENT SIGNATURES

H.-S. Lui, M. Persson, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

Resonance based target recognition has been well studied for the last three decades. The purely target dependent natural resonant frequencies are used as a feature set for target classification. Such technique may fail if the targets of interest have similar or almost the same resonant frequencies. In this paper, the idea of using the polarimetric features at the resonant frequencies is investigated and demonstrated via numerical examples.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         F01.5  GLOBAL MAPPING OF RAINFALL FROM TRMM RADAR LINKING GROUND BASED RADARS AND IN-SITU OBSERVATIONS

V. Chandrasekar1,2, A. Alquda3;  1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States; 2Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland, Finland; 3Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

Tropical Rainfall measuring Mission Precipitation Radar is known to be the first spaceborne observation platform for mapping precipitation over the tropics. TRMM measured rainfall is important in order to study the precipitation distribution. Ground validation is a critical important component in TRMM system. However, the ground sensing systems have different sampling and observation characteristics from TRMM. In this paper a novel hybrid Neural Network model is presented to train ground radars for rainfall estimation using rain gauge data and subsequently using the trained ground radar rainfall estimation to train TRMM PR based Neural networks, to create Global maps of precipitation.

10:00         F01.6  COMPACT SUB MILLIMETER WAVELENGTH HETERODYNE RADIOMETER FOR ARRAYS

J. Treuttel, A. Maestrini, Observatory of Paris, Paris, France;  B. Alderman, H. Wang, H. Sanghera, D. Matheson, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, UK;  P. DeMaagt, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, Netherland  

We present a very compact frontend radiometer at 300-360 GHz, which requires a local oscillator power at 60 GHz. A single receiver element is developed to fit n x m element 2D focal plane array, where n and m > 2. This element array is packaged in a block with a cuboid outline. The attractiveness of this configuration is that the input/output of the receiver are contained within the footprint of the antenna, therefore a full two-dimensional array is possible.

10:20         F01.7  REFLECTION ON CURVED SURFACES IN A 2.5D RAY-TRACING METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES EXPOSURE PREDICTION IN URBAN AREAS

N. Noe, CSTB, Nantes, France;  F. Gaudaire, CSTB, Grenoble, France  

Asymptotic methods are commonly used to predict exposure to electromagnetic waves in large environments such as urban areas. Specifically 2D beam-tracing is a very efficient solution in case of GIS 2.5D environments. Nevertheless taking into account reflection on curved vertical walls or curved ground in such methods is not straightforward. Indeed curved surfaces are mostly described as meshes and lead to artificial shadowing and inaccurate electric field estimation. We explain here how to avoid such problems without modifying existing geometry by using normal interpolation in a generalized beam-tracing technique, and present results for some real cases.

10:40          End of the Session

G01 – Open Session and Latest Results I

Session Chairs: Paul Cannon, Michael Rietveld

Session     G01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Topkapi A

08:00         G01.1  HOW IS THE IONOSPHERE DRIVEN BY THE MAGNETOSPHERE?

P. Song1, V. M. Vasyliunas1,2;  1University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, United States; 2Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany

In the ionospheric community, the electric field is often considered the driver of the ionospheric motion. We demonstrates from theoretical points of view that the electric field cannot be the driver of the motion. Instead, the electric field is a result, not the cause, of the motion. The causal relationship can be clearly understood in particular in dynamic processes and in heating processes. We call for a review and correction of the misused concept of electric field being a driver of motion and in particular the incorrect concept of penetration electric field.

08:20         G01.2  MULTI-INSTRUMENT OBSERVATIONS OF AN MSTID OVER ARECIBO OBSERVATORY

J. H. Klenzing, I. Seker, R. F. Pfaff, D. E. Rowland, S. F. Fung, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States;  J. D. Mathews, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States  

The Penn State All-Sky Imager (PSASI) at Arecibo Observatory provides planar horizontal context to the vertical ionospheric profiles obtained by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). Electric field measurements from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite are mapped down geomagnetic field lines to the height of the airglow layer, allowing multi-instrument studies of field-aligned irregularities with radar, imager, and satellite. A Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (MSTID) was observed during such a conjunction near the December solstice of 2009.

08:40         G01.3  EQUATORIAL COUNTER ELECTROJETS:- AN INVESTIGATION USING THE GROUND BASED OPTICAL AND RADIO PROBING TECHNIQUES.

V. Chandrasekharan Nair, T. K. Pant, K. K. Kumar, Space Physics Laboratory, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

This study presents the behavior of daytime zonal wind and OH temperature at upper mesospheric altitudes during afternoon Equatorial Counter Electrojet (CEJ) events over a dip equatorial station, Trivandrum (8.5oN, 76.5oE, 0.5oN dip lat.) in India. The measurements were carried out using a unique Multiwavelength Dayglow Photometer (MWDPM), Meteor Wind Radar and Proton Precession Magnetometers. It is observed that during the CEJ events: (i) zonal wind at 98 km exhibits an eastward acceleration and (ii) the mesopause undergoes a cooling, which in turn is proportional to the strength of CEJ. The paper discusses these results in detail.

09:00         G01.4  LONG-DISTANCE PROPAGATION EFFECTS IN THE HF SIGNALS FROM DIFFERENT HEATING FACILITIES OBSERVED WITH USING PASSIVE DOPPLER SOUNDING EQUIPMENT AT IRKUTSK

O. I. Berngardt1, V. G. Abramov1, N. F. Blagoveschenskaya2, V. L. Frolov3, V. I. Kurkin1, S. N. Ponomarchuk1;  1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russian Federation; 2Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St.Petersburg, Russian Federation; 3Radiophysical Research Institute (NIRFI), N.Novgorod, Russian Federation

We present the first observation results of long-distance propagation effects of short radio waves at pump frequency, observed by passive Doppler sounding equipment at Irkutsk during heating facilities operation. We demonstrate two effects: dependence of the received signal amplitude on the propagation path during power-stepping mode and difference between experimental observations and propagation expectations according to our model.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         G01.5  VARIATIONAL METHODS IN IONOSPHERIC RAY TRACING

C. J. Coleman, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

Ray tracing is an important tool in the study of radio wave propagation. In particular, numerical solutions to the Haselgrove ray equations have proven to be one of the most useful techniques for ray tracing in the ionosphere. Haselgrove equations are differential equations that are derived from Fermats principle which also provides a variational equation for ray tracing. The present paper will discuss the problems of directly solving Fermats principle and describe some recent work that has led to a successful variational approach to ionospheric ray tracing with magneto-ionic effects included.

10:00         G01.6  USE OF A DRM MODULATION TO STUDY THE IONOSPHERE

H. Sizun, URSI-France, Lannion, France;  P. Maliet, Pleumeur Bodou Radio Observation Association, Pleumeur Bodou, France  

The aim of this article is to introduce a technology of investigation of the ionosphere based on reception of a numerical broadcasting fixed link at 6.085 MHz using the DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) modulation properties as an opportunistic ionospheric sounder. The analysis used tools are Dream and SpectrumLab software. Observations are accomplished at the same time in narrow band (2Hz) and in wide band (10 kHz). They are presented by dopplergram. Different ionospheric characteristic events are observed in narrow band (typical figures, scattering, absorption, gravity waves) and in large band (selective fading, scattering, absorption). Different typical examples are presented.

10:20         G01.7  THE EFFECT OF IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATION ON PHASE GRADIENT AUTOFOCUS PROCESSING OF SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

D. L. Knepp, NorthWest Research Associates, Monterey CA, United States;  G. M. Keith, Air Force Research Laboratory, Boston MA, United States  

This paper considers the effects of scintillation (variations in amplitude and phase) on a narrow band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that utilizes the phase-gradient autofocus (PGA) method that attempts to compensate for the effects of phase errors across the synthetic aperture. The multiple phase screen (MPS) technique is used to model the effects of amplitude and phase scintillation for a spotlight-mode SAR operating in the equatorial region. Examples are presented of the performance of SAR/PGA for values of the decorrelation distance and scintillation index that represent natural ionospheric scintillation at UHF.

10:40          End of the Session

H01 – Nonlinear Waves and Turbulence in Plasmas

Session Chairs: Meers Oppenheim, Hideyuki Usui, David Shklyar

Session     H01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Topkapi B

08:00         H01.1  SAID-RELATED NONLINEAR WAVE EFFECTS

E. Mishin, Air Force Research Laboratory, Space vehicles Directorate, Hanscom AFB, MA, United States

We present recent observations from the Cluster spacecraft that have shown that excitation of lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic waves plays the fundamental role in SAID formation. The SAID channel is a turbulent plasmaspheric boundary layer formed via a short circuit of substorm-injected plasma jets. Nonlinear wave-particle interactions provide fast magnetic diffusion at the leading front and define the circuit's anomalous resistivity, similar to the well-documented plasmoid-magnetic barrier problem. Mainly gradient-drift and current-driven instabilities operate near the outer boundary of the SAID channel, while anisotropic ion-driven processes dominate near the inner boundary.

08:20         H01.2  SOLITON MODEL FOR BROADBAND ELECTROSTATIC NOISE

S. Singh, G. S. Lakhina, A. P. Kakad, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India;  J. S. Pickett, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA  

Generation of broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) by electron-acoustic solitons and double layers is proposed. PSBL is treated as multi-component magnetized plasma consisting of background electrons, counter-streaming electron beams and ions. Theoretical model is based on multi-fluid and Poisson equations and uses Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. For PSBL plasma parameters, during BEN event observed by Cluster on 22 September 2004, the model predicts solitons/double layer with electric field (0.01-30) mV/m. The proposed model can be good candidate for explaining the generation of BEN in the PSBL.

08:40         H01.3  ELECTRON ACOUSTIC SOLITONS IN THE PRESENCE OF AN ELECTRON BEAM AND SUPERTHERMAL ELECTRONS

S. Devanandhan, S. V. Singh, G. S. Lakhina, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Existence of arbitrary amplitude electron acoustic solitons is studied in an unmagnetized plasma having cold electrons and ions, superthermal hot electrons and an electron beam. Using Sagdeev pseudo potential method, theoretical analysis is carried out by assuming superthermal hot electrons having kappa distribution. The results show that inclusion of beam alters the minimum value of spectral index and Mach number for which electron-acoustic solitons can exist. For the auroral region parameters, the maximum electric field amplitudes and soliton widths are found in the range ~ (100-400) mV/m and ~ (314-515) m, respectively.

09:00         H01.4  VLF AND HF PLASMA WAVES ASSOCIATED WITH SPREAD-F PLASMA DEPLETIONS OBSERVED ON THE C/NOFS SATELLITE

R. F. Pfaff, H. Freudenreich, P. Schuck, J. Klenzing, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States

The C/NOFS spacecraft frequently encounters structured plasma depletions associated with equatorial spread-F along its trajectory that varies between 401 km perigee and 867 km apogee in the low latitude ionosphere. We report two classes of plasma waves detected with the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) in the VLF and HF frequency regimes that appear when the plasma frequency is less than the electron gyro frequency, as is common in spread-F depletions where the plasma number density typically decreases below 104/cm3.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         H01.5  3D SIMULATIONS OF FARLEY-BUNEMAN TURBULENCE DEMONSTRATES ANOMALOUS ELECTRON HEATING

M. M. Oppenheim, Y. S. Dimant, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States

Field aligned currents flow from the magnetosphere to the E-region ionosphere where they drive the intense currents of the auroral electrojet. These currents often cause Farley-Buneman (FB) instabilities to develop and become turbulent. The resulting electron density irregularities affect ionospheric conductivity, temperatures, and radio wave propagation. We will discuss 3-D PIC simulations showing intense anomalous electron heating due to turbulence, a phenomena clearly observed by radars. These simulations also show the saturated amplitude of the waves; coupling between modes; the evolution from by shorter to longer wavelengths; and dominant phase velocities at close to the acoustic speed.

10:00         H01.6  NONLINEAR, INTERMITTENT E-REGION IRREGULARITIES: WHAT DO WE REALLY KNOW?

A. M. Hamza, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada

One of the most fundamental challenges of ionospheric physics is to explain why the largest amplitude structures tend to move at phase speeds that do not exceed on average the linear theory threshold? To provide a solution one has to rely on nonlinear theory in order to study the development and evolution of nonlinear ionospheric structures. We propose to study the development and evolution of nonlinear, large-amplitude, intermittent E-region plasma structures. We will set up the analytical model, and compare the predictions of the model to ionospheric E-region experimental observations.

10:20         H01.7  TOWARDS A POSSIBLE RESOLUTION OF THE 150-KM RIDDLE

E. Kudeki, University of Illinois and Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States;  J. L. Chau, R. F. Woodman, Radio Observatorio de Jicamarca, Lima, Peru  

High-resolution incoherent scatter radar Faraday rotation and digital ionosonde data from Jicamarca indicating the presence of km-scale electron density variations in the equatorial upper E-region will be presented and discussed in relation to the generation mechanisms of meter-scale field-aligned density fluctuations known as 150-km irregularities. The km-scale density variations are likely to be a consequence of gravity-wave imposed dynamics of the geomagnetically constrained plasma in the region. This conjecture is supported by the gravity-wave-period oscillations and downward phase progression of intensity variations of meter-scale waves observed in the region.

10:40          End of the Session

J01 – Low Frequency Radio Astronomy I – (LOFAR, LWA, MWA, GMRT, any other)

Session Chairs: Colin Lonsdale, Mike Garrett

Session     J01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Marmara

08:00         J01.1  LONG WAVELENGTH RADIO SCIENCE: INSPIRATIONS FROM ASTRONOMY

R. Subrahmanyan, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India

The last decade has been witness to precision cosmology via measurements of the cosmic microwave background. More recently, the window of exploration and discovery in radio astronomy has moved to long wavelengths where solutions to frontier problems in many areas of astrophysics have vital clues. A key science is the detection of trace spatial and spectral signatures in the sky brightness at long wavelengths arising from events at the cosmic dawn that are associated with the formation of first stars and galaxies and their impact on the gas. I review astrophysics that inspires innovation in long wavelength radio science.

08:20         J01.2  CALIBRATION CHALLENGES FOR LOW FREQUENCY RADIO ASTRONOMY

W. D. Cotton, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA, United Statesj

A major challenge for all high resolution low frequency radio astronomy is measuring and removing the effects of the ionosphere. The isoplanatic patch size for frequencies below a few hundred MHz is generally much smaller than the field of view. In addition, aperture arrays have beams on the sky which vary dramatically with observing geometry. These beams require careful calibration to be stable and known in order to allow imaging. Various approaches to these problems will be discussed.

08:40         J01.3  SITE REQUIREMENTS AND CHALLENGES FOR LOW FREQUENCY RADIO OBSERVATIONS

R. P. Millenaar, SPDO, Manchester, United Kingdom

Observing the early universe, in particular detecting the signature of the EOR is an important science target for the SKA and other new radio telescopes. These high redshift observations require excellent performance at low frequencies, as low as 50 MHz. Observations will be carried out in a crowded part of the radio spectrum, even at the very radio-quiet sites that are considered. Propagation of RFI at these frequencies can be highly variable and the influence of the ionosphere on propagation is felt strongly in this frequency range. An overview of issues and challenges is presented.

09:00         J01.4  WIDEBAND LOW FREQUENCY ANTENNAS FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY ARRAYS

A. E. E. Rogers, E. Kratzenberg, B. E. Corey, C. J. Lonsdale, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, United States;  C. L. Williams, MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States;  J. D. Bowman, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States  

Antennas in the frequency range 10 to 300 MHz are being designed with all-sky coverage, a low response at the horizon to minimize interference from terrestrial sources, negligible ground loss and a good low noise match to the low noise amplifier. Other features include low cost, dual polarization and good performance over more than an octave bandwidth. Extending the antenna performance over a wider frequency range and accurate calibration are remaining challenges. Modeling of the antenna and its associated low noise amplifier shows promise as a method of improving calibration accuracy.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         J01.5  LOFAR: A POWERFUL AND FLEXIBLE OBSERVATORY FOR PULSARS AND FAST TRANSIENTS

J. W. T. Hessels, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Dwingeloo, Netherlands;  B. W. Stappers, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom  

LOFAR is a sparse aperture array radio telescope that can observe from 10-240MHz - i.e. the lowest radio frequencies observable from Earth. Construction of the LOFAR core is all but complete and regular observations of pulsars and other rapidly varying radio sources have begun. With it's huge field-of-view, flexible multi-beaming capabilities, and large collecting area, LOFAR promises to revolutionize observations of transient radio phenomena with durations of nanoseconds to years. Here we highlight a few of the most recent LOFAR pulsar observations, which demonstrate that the system is already producing science-quality data.

10:00         J01.6  THE LOFAR MAGNETISM KEY SCIENCE PROJECT

A. M. M. Scaife1, R. Beck2, G. Heald3, J. M. Anderson2, W. Reich2, A. G. de Bruyn3;  1Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, Ireland; 2Max Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany; 3ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands

The low frequencies observed by the LOFAR telescope make it a unique probe of weak magnetic fields in the Universe. I will describe the LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project (MKSP) and give an overview of some of the key science drivers which motivate this KSP. I will describe the observational techniques being utilised to recover polarization and magnetism information with LOFAR and show some of the early results from the KSP commissioning.

10:20         J01.7  DETECTING THE EOR WITH LOFAR: STEPS ALONG THE ROAD

A. G. de Bruyn1,2, M. A. Brentjens1, L. V. E. Koopmans2, S. Zaroubi2, P. Lampropoulos1,2, S. B. Yatawatta1,2;  1ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; 2Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen, Netherlands

In December 2010 we started observations with a partially completed LOFAR, to prepare ourselves for the calibration and processing of deep (hundreds of hours) integrations in a number of Galactic halo windows. These observations are aimed at detecting the redshifted 21cm signals from the Epoch of Reionization using the LOFAR HBA antennas (115-190 MHz, z=11.4 6.3). Two fields have been observed for about a dozen nights in the Spring of 2011. The data have been mostly processed on a dedicated EoR-project cluster. Some results and first conclusions from the analysis of these data is presented.

10:40          End of the Session

K01 – Interaction between EMF and Biosystems: Molecular Modeling and Ultra Short Pulses Biological Effects

Session Chairs: Lluis Mir, P. Thomas Vernier

Session     K01

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 08:00-10:40

Room        Loft

08:00         K01.1  MODELING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN A BIOCHEMICAL REACTION: UNDERSTANDING REACTIVITY INHIBITION DUE TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD

A. Amadei, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy;  L. Zanetti, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy;  F. Apollonio, M. Liberti, P. Marracino, G. d'Inzeo, University Sapienza of Rome, Rome, Italy  

In this work we have used MD simulations combined with quantum mechanical calculations to model the spin state relaxation of a common biochemical reaction utilized for an experimental study on magnetic field effects. Data clearly show that a 0.2T static magnetic field strongly inhibits the spin relaxation process avoiding the 1 triplet to singlet state transitions. Such a result sheds light on the atomistic mechanism of the magnetic field effects and opens the way to further investigations possibly leading to a detailed description of the complex biochemical-biophysical processes involved in the interaction between EM-fields and biomolecular systems.

08:20         K01.2  THE ROLE OF WATER NEAR CHARGED INTERFACES: MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES IN PRESENCE OF HIGH INTENSE ELECTRIC FIELDS

F. Apollonio1, P. Marracino1, V. Di Mattia1, M. Liberti1, A. Amadei2, G. d'Inzeo1;  1University Sapienza of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Because of its central role in basically all aspects of science, water is certainly one of the most extensively investigated substances. Moreover, the characterization of liquids and solutions under the effect of external electric fields is a long standing and challenging field of investigation for both theoretical and experimental approaches. In this work the behavior of water near charged interfaces has been evaluated considering two different cases: an ion in aqueous solution and a macromolecule of DNA. The methodology used is based on atomistic simulations, specifically adapted to account for the presence of exogenous electric fields.

08:40         K01.3  STRUCTURE AND ELECTROPORATION OF LIPID BILAYERS: A MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY

R. Reigada, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain;  M. L. Fernandez, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Pore formation in lipid bilayers subjected to a transverse electric field is studied by means of Molecular Dynamics simulations of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). The physical characteristics of the lipid membrane are crucial to understand the electroporation conditions. For example, addition of cholesterol (Chol) causes a substantial increment of membrane cohesion that results in an increase of the minimum electric field needed for membrane permeabilization. Instead, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is known to produce an opposite effect on membrane properties by increasing its fluidity and disorder that may open the possibility to facilitate the membrane electroporation process.

09:00         K01.4  NANOSECOND (GIGAHERTZ) AND MICROSECOND (MEGAHERTZ) PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD INTERACTIONS WITH CELL MEMBRANES

P. T. Vernier, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

High-intensity nanosecond pulsed electric fields permeabilize cell membranes, restructure phospholipid bilayers, cause intracellular calcium release, depolarize mitochondrial membranes, and induce apoptosis. Molecular simulations reveal the mechanism for the electric field-driven reorganization of phospholipid head groups and water molecules that results in the formation of membrane-spanning water bridges and conductive pores. Progress has been made in taking nanosecond electric pulses to the clinic for the treatment of skin cancers and other lesions, but a deeper understanding of the underlying biophysical phenomena will facilitate the application of this technology in cancer therapeutics through non-thermal, minimally scarring tumor ablation.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         K01.5  EXPOSURE OF CELLS IN SUSPENSION USING NANOSECOND DURATION ELECTRIC PULSES - DETECTION OF PERMEABILISATION BY CLONING EFFICIENCY TESTS: RESULTS AND ARTIFACTS.

A. Silve, L. M. Mir, CNRS UMR 8203, Villejuif, France

Intense (several MV/m) nanosecond duration electric pulses can induce damages on cells external membrane which can be detected by direct cell killing or by the uptake of non permeant molecules. We detail here the methodology to carry out those experiments, drawing the attention to exposure artifacts that demonstrate the importance of the implementation of a metrology specific to the ultrashort pulses.

10:00         K01.6  AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE CHANGES DURING ELECTROPORATION

P. A. Garcia, R. E. Neal II, M. B. Sano, R. V. Davalos, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, United States

Electroporation uses short, pulsed electric fields to induce a cellular transmembrane potential that results in increased cellular permeability. When performed irreversibly, it results in cell death while leaving the extracellular matrix and other sensitive structures intact. These electric fields result in thermal effects to the affected tissues due to resistive heating. We measure this heating extent in an ex-vivo canine brain by recording temperature changes in real time. Temperatures were measured at three locations near the electrodes. Thermal damage was evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. This study experimentally shows that typical electroporation protocols result in negligible thermal damage.

10:20         K01.7  ELECTROCHEMOTHERAPY

L. M. Mir, CNRS, Villejuif, France

Electrochemotherapy is a new antitumor strategy based on the delivery of short (100 microseconds) electric pulses and non-permeant anticancer drugs such as bleomycin. The electric pulses, which must cover the whole of the tumor volume, make permeable the cell membrane and allow the unrestricted penetration of the drug. Electrochemotherapy is a safe, very efficient and cost-effective treatment which is spreading in the EU for the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions of any histological origin. The bases, indications and present clinical trials, targeting internal and deep-seated tumors, will be reported.

10:40          End of the Session

BT – Passive and Active Metamaterial Constructs and Their Impact on Electrically Small Radiating and Scattering Systems

Session Chair: Karl Langenberg

Session     BT

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 09:40-10:40

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

09:40         BT.1  PASSIVE AND ACTIVE METAMATERIAL CONSTRUCTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ELECTRICALLY SMALL RADIATING AND SCATTERING SYSTEMS

R. W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

In the last decade, the metamaterials field has enabled numerous exciting electromagnetic advances. Exotic physics properties have led to the engineering of metamaterials and metamaterial-inspired structures for a variety of applications, including the miniaturization of resonators and their use for improving the performance characteristics of electrically small antennas and optical scatterers. Active metamaterial constructs have been introduced to increase the bandwidths at low frequencies and to overcome losses at high frequencies. The theoretical designs of many of these highly subwavelength systems and their simulated performance characteristics have been confirmed experimentally. These concurrences between theory and experiment will be highlighted.

10:40          End of the Session

General Lecture 1

Session Chair: Madhu Chandra

Session     GL1

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 11:00-12:00

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

11:00         GL1.1  SMOS: FROM REQUIREMENTS TO RESULTS VIA RADIO SCIENCE

Y. Kerr, CESBIO, Toulouse, France

It is well established that data on soil moisture and sea surface salinity are required to improve meteorological and climatic predictions. These two quantities are not yet available globally or with adequate temporal sampling. It is within this framework that the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission as its second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission. SMOS is a very novel instrument and is based on a passive microwave interferometer (as in radioastronomy) operating at L band (1.4 GHz) Since the 2nd of November, 2009, date of its launch, SMOS observations have provided an unprecedented maximum spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band over land, together with multi-angular fully polarized brightness temperatures over the globe. SMOS has a revisit time of less than 3 days which permits the retrieval of soil moisture and ocean salinity data in accordance to the mission’s science objectives. Now, after the commissioning phase and more than one year of operations, SMOS is entering the phase in which the retrieval algorithms stabilises and new applications can be derived from the SMOS data over land, all leading logically to a better management of water resources. Currently, the main applications tackled are flood monitoring and risks forecasting, drought monitoring and potential forecasting with associated fire risks. Using some specific sites, we are also considering applications in terms of water management (i.e., irrigation monitoring) as well as ways to disaggregate SMOS data into finer scales. However, the SMOS data is hampered by radio-frequency interferences (RFI), and the whole team is working to deal with this issue. During the presentation, an update of the SMOS mission and results will be presented together with new results and a glimpse of those potential applications. We will also depict the RFI issue as well as other similar missions to be launched (Aquarius and SMAP).

12:00          End of the Session

A02 – Fractals - Design and Measurement

Session Chair: William Davis

Session     A02

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-15:40

Room        Dolmabahçe C

13:40         A02.1  HILBERT CURVE FRACTAL ANTENNA FOR WLAN APPLICATION

R. M. Haridas, J. Chandwani, P. Musale, S. V. Khobragade, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technolgogical University Lonere, Raigad, Mangaon, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

In this paper we propose the fractal antenna using Hilbert Curve. The purpose of this paper is to design the Hilbert curve fractal antenna WLAN application at 5GHz frequency. Theoretical performance of this antenna has been calculated and presented in the paper. Simulation results show that the antenna have multiband resonate behavior. The results have shown that this antenna has acceptable performance that is VSWR ≤ 2 and return loss ≤ -10dB. This feature provides antenna designer with more degree of freedom and makes the proposed antenna suitable for use in modern multifunction communication system.

14:00         A02.2  STUDY OF SIERPINSKI CARPET FRACTAL ANTENNA

A. A. Pawar, A. A. Jadhav, J. Bhosale, S. V. Khobragade, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere, Maharashtra, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

In the today‟s world of communication, low cost of fabrication and low profile features of microstrip antennas, attract many researchers to investigate the performance of this antenna . Carpet antenna is new member in the antenna family. They have peculiar properties that make them suitable for applications where wideband, multiband and frequency independence are important parameters of the overall performance. Fractal technology allowed us to design miniature antennas and integrate multiple telecommunication services into a single device. The design of carpet antenna with multiple bands for the services viz. WLAN, satellite and Laser communications is studied in this paper.

14:20         A02.3  TRIPLE BAND FRACTAL UWB ANTENNA USING U AND C SLOT FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

S. S. Rudrawar, D. B. Khandgaonkar, J. Bhosale, S. V. Khobragade, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,lonere-Raigad, Maharashtra, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Maharashtra, India  

Fractal UWB antenna with triple band for wireless communication system is designed. U slot is inserted in the original patch to generate second resonant at 5.0 (GHz). Another C-slot is inserted to generate 5.7 (GHz) third band. This system may include various application such as GPS, wireless local-area network (WLAN) and Hiper LAN. Four iterations of fractal wide band antenna are arranged and examined. With this structure the designed antenna has operating frequency of 1.8-GHz,5.0-GHz and 5.7GHz with acceptable bandwidth of 80%,30%,3% and S11<-10dB (VSWR<2).

14:40         A02.4  PROXIMITY-COUPLED NOVEL DESIGN OF FRACTAL TREE ANTENNA MINIATURIZATION

J. S. Bhosale, S. V. Khobragade, V. R. Anitha, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Maharashtra, India

In this paper, for more antenna miniaturization, we present Novel fractal tree geometry that allows decrease in resonance frequency without occupying more space. For improving inherently narrow bandwidth of Fractal antenna Proximity-coupled feed is implemented. Proposed Fractal Tree antenna is designed for 2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz. The -10 dB return loss bandwidth could reach about 9.5% for 2.4 GHz band and 31.5% for 3.6 GHz band, which meet required bandwidth specification of 2.4/3.6 GHz WLAN standard. Radiation pattern of fractal antenna is nearly omnidirectional in azimuth plane throughout operating frequency.

15:00         A02.5  STUDY OF SIERPINSKI TRIANGLE GASKET BY USING STRIP FEEDING

A. Lale, B. Khiste, G. Burshe, S. Khobragade, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere, Maharashtra, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

A Sierpinski triangle gasket antenna are developed to achieve a suitable bandwidth for wireless communication This triangle gasket, having size of 4.732cm 4.732cm 4.732cm which are an equilateral triangle used low dielectric constant substrates with strip feeds to achieve the required bandwidth. Four such strip feeds iterations are used to achieve bandwidth with return loss<-10dB, VSWR<2 One advantage observed here at low frequencies the triangle gives good radiation pattern The antenna has been designed for operation at WLAN/WiMAX (2.4GHz) and WiMAX (3.5GHz) and also in RADAR for ultra-wide bandwidth applications.

15:20         A02.6  STUDY OF KOCH MONOPOLE FRACTAL ANTENNA

N. Sable, S. D. Gharat, J. Bhosale, S. V. Khobragade, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,lonere-Raigad, Maharashtra, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

In this work, the design of Koch monopole fractal antenna to be used in wireless communications at the ISM frequency band is presented. Antenna's shape and dimensions are optimized to achieve area minimization, by applying the properties of fractal shapes at the radiating slots. The property of self-similarity that fractal shapes possess has been successfully applied in other types of antennas with great success. The effects of fractal miniaturization in this type of antennas, mainly regarding the radiation pattern, the antenna efficiency, and applicability of fractal shapes in design of antenna for wireless communication systems are presented herein.

15:40          End of the Session

BD1 – Metamaterial Theory

Session Chairs: Richard Ziolkowski, Nader Engheta, Christophe Caloz

Session     BD1

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-17:20

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

13:40         BD1.1  A GENERAL MACROSCOPIC ANISOTROPIC REPRESENTATION FOR SPATIALLY DISPERSIVE MEDIA

A. D. Yaghjian, 115 Wright Road, Concord, MA 01742, United States;  R. A. Shore, Hanscom AFB, Bedford, MA 01731, United States;  A. Alu, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78705, United States  

It is shown that any spatially and temporally dispersive bianisotropic material, satisfying Maxwell's macroscopic equations for E and H in the Fourier transformed space, can also be represented as an anisotropic material. Thus, for many applications, magnetoelectric constitutive parameters can be avoided at the macroscopic level.

14:00         BD1.2  CONSTRAINTS ON THE TEMPORAL DISPERSION OF PASSIVE METAMATERIALS

M. Gustafsson, D. Sjoberg, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Metamaterial applications such as cloaking, perfect lenses, and artificial permeability are restricted by the frequency dependence of the permittivity, permeability, and index of refraction. Here, causality and passivity together with integral identities for Herglotz functions are used to construct sum rules. The sum rules relate the frequency dependence of the material parameters with their high- and low-frequency values. The corresponding physical bounds determine the minimum variations of the material parameters over a frequency interval. The results are illustrated with a numerical example for artificial permeability.

14:20         BD1.3  METADISPERSION IN ANISOTROPIC AND BIANISOTROPIC MEDIA

G. M. Sardi, F. Caminita, E. Martini, S. Maci, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

This work presents an innovative method for the characterization of metamaterials dispersion. The attention is focused on structures realized by stacks of planar periodic surfaces. The analysis procedure subdivides the metamaterial into its constituent planes, performing a full wave analysis of the single periodic structures, and uses analytic formulas from Bloch theory to determine the dispersion characteristics of the overall artificial medium. Physical properties of the equivalent admittance matrix modeling the single planar sheets are exploited to analytically describe the dispersion properties of the metamaterial in the whole first Brillouin zone, starting from a limited number of full-wave simulations.

14:40         BD1.4  AN EFFICIENT NUMERICAL APPROACH TO THE ACCURATE ANALYSIS OF PROPAGATION AND RADIATION PHENOMENA IN METAMATERIAL STRUCTURES

G. Valerio1, D. R. Jackson2, D. R. Wilton2, A. Galli1;  1Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA

An overview is presented of a novel implementation for the efficient analysis of metamaterial structures embedded in layered media. Based on a suitable mixed-potential integral-equation formulation, ad hoc acceleration procedures for the periodic potentials (expressed through slowly-convergent series when source and observation points lie in the same horizontal plane) have been developed. The approach consists of an asymptotic extraction of homogeneous-medium terms. Numerical results are shown, proving the computational efficiency of this method and validating different types of propagation and radiation features in metamaterial structures. Comparisons are performed with commercial software and data from the literature.

15:00         BD1.5  AN APPROACH TO FINDING THE CORRECT BRANCH FROM THE FOREST OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR EXTRACTED EFFECTIVE MATERIAL PARAMETERS

O. Luukkonen1, S. I. Maslovski2, S. A. Tretyakov1;  1Aalto University, Espoo, Finland; 2Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

In the classical Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) electromagnetic material parameter extraction technique the effective material parameters are obtained through reflection and transmission measurements of a planar material sample. One of the advantages of this technique is that it provides the result over a broad frequency band with just one measurement. This technique, however, does not provide us unambiguous results of the effective permittivity and permeability but the correct solution needs to be found through an additional deduction process. We present a derivative of the NRW extraction technique that can overcome this problem related to the infinitely many solution branches.

15:20         BD1.6  TRANSFORMATION ELECTROMAGNETICS IN ANTENNA ENGINEERING: THEORY AND IMPLEMENTATION

Y. Hao, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

Current designs of electromagnetic cloaks are largely based on the use of metamaterials and a technique called transformation optics/electromagnetics. Free space cloaks require materials with extreme properties and, hence, they are difficult to implement in practice. However, the theory of transformation optics/electromagnetics offers a useful design tool for antenna engineers, and enables them to develop novel antennas. In this paper, we will review some research activities at Queen Mary, University of London, regarding applications of transformation electromagnetics in the antenna and microwave engineering. Design examples such as flat reflectors, lenses and sub-wavelength antennas will be introduced.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         BD1.7  TRANSMISSION LINE BASED METAMATERIALS FOR ACOUSTIC WAVES

F. Bongard, JAST SA, Antenna Systems, Lausanne, Switzerland;  H. Lissek, J. R. Mosig, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland  

We present our recent work on a one-dimensional acoustic negative refractive index metamaterial based on the concept of dual transmission line extensively investigated in microwave engineering. The proposed structure consists of an acoustic waveguide periodically loaded with membranes realizing the function of series capacitances and transversally connected open channels realizing shunt inductances. It exhibits a negative refractive index band over almost one octave, from 0.6 to 1 kHz. Using formal analogies, we describe how simple acoustic circuit models can be used for efficient design of metamaterials both in terms of dispersion and impedance.

16:20         BD1.8  CHIRALITY AND BIANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN PLASMONIC METASURFACES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO REALIZE ULTRATHIN OPTICAL CIRCULAR POLARIZERS

A. Alu, Y. Zhao, X.-X. Liu, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States

In this paper we develop a rigorous analytical theory relating the effective impedance of plasmonic metasurfaces to a generalized form of polarizability, which compactly describes the electric, magnetic and magneto-electric response of the individual inclusions and the overall array coupling. We apply this theory to the design of plasmonic metasurfaces composed of lithographically printed planar inclusions, showing that their inherent chiral and bianisotropic response may be exploited to produce ultrathin optical circular polarizers. Bianistropic effects, particularly relevant to enhance the response to circularly polarized light, may be maximized in specific incidence planes, as a function of the inclusion symmetries.

16:40         BD1.9  FIELD DISPLACEMENT IN A TRAVELING-WAVE RING RESONATOR META-STRUCTURE

T. Kodera, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan;  D. Sounas, H. V. Nguyen, H. Razavipour, C. Caloz, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada  

Field displacement is demonstrated for the first-time in a non-molecular scale structure, namely a metastructure composed of rings equipped with an isolator. The structure is explained in terms of rotating magnetic dipole moments and demonstrated to produce typical gyrotropic field displacement.

17:00         BD1.10  FROM ELECTRONICS TO METATRONICS TO GRAPHENE METAMATERIALS

N. Engheta, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

We discuss the concept of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, in which the metamaterials and plasmonic optics can bring together three fields of electronics, photonics and magnetics seamlessly under one umbrella--a paradigm which I call the Unified Paradigm of Metatronics. We present an overview of our most recent analytical, numerical and experimental results in developing the optical metatronics. We also show how this concept can be merged into the platform of graphene, leading to the possibility of one-atom-thick infrared metamaterials and transformation optics. Future directions in these topics will also be forecasted.

17:20          End of the Session

C02 – Advanced Architectures of High-Performance Power Amplifiers for Mobile Communications Systems

Session Chairs: Shoichi Narahashi, Nobuyuki Itoh

Session     C02

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-15:40

Room        Dolmabahçe A

13:40         C02.1  A CONCURRENT MULTI-BAND POWER AMPLIFIER WITH COMPACT MATCHING NETWORKS

A. Fukuda, H. Okazaki, S. Narahashi, NTT DOCOMO, Inc., Yokosuka, Japan;  T. Nojima, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan  

This paper presents a novel configuration for a concurrent multi-band power amplifier (PA). A multi-band matching network comprises a multi-section impedance transformer that achieves matching in multiple bands. The proposed impedance transformer provides flexibility in the design of a concurrent multi-band PA in a wide frequency range. The impedance transformer is compact since each section comprises a combination of a T-shaped network, a shunt tank circuit, and a matching element. The proposed 1W-class dual-band PA achieves a maximum power added efficiency of greater than 53% at 0.8 GHz and 3.3 GHz.

14:00         C02.2  BURST MODE OPERATION AS AN EFFICIENCY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR RF POWER AMPLIFIERS

B. M. Francois, E. Kaymaksut, P. Reynaert, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

In this paper, the Burst Mode operation is proposed as an efficiency enhancement technique for RF power amplifiers. It presents an introduction of the burst mode operation and the efficiency of Burst Mode RF power amplifiers is summarily analyzed. The efficiency improvement for a wideband load and a narrow band filter are both illustrated. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed Burst Mode operation, a PCB-mounted Burst Mode PA using a LDMOS transistor has been fabricated. Measurements show a peak efficiency of 78\% and 28.5dBm output power and an efficiency of 49.5\% at 6dB power back-off.

14:20         C02.3  ASIC IMPLEMENTATION OF FREQUENCY DOMAIN EQUALIZER FOR SINGLE CARRIER TRANSMISSION

K. Komatsu1, S. Kameda1, M. Iwata2, S. Tanifuji1, N. Suematsu1, T. Takagi1, K. Tsubouchi1;  1Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 2School of Information, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi, Japan

Since SC-FDE with MMSE operates at lower PAPR than OFDM, SC-FDE with MMSE is a main candidate for uplink of cellular system such as LTE. In this paper, an ASIC chip for the SC-FDE is implemented on TSMC 180 nm CMOS. The chip size is 5.86 mm^2. The power consumption is 200 mW at data rate of 4.86 Mbit/s. In the condition of 16 paths uniform power delay profile, at a BER of 10^-4, the degradation of measured Eb/N0 from computer simulation is found to be less than 1 dB.

14:40         C02.4  A 3.5-GHZ BAND 140-W-CLASS WIDEBAND FEED-FORWARD POWER AMPLIFIER FOR MOBILE BASE STATIONS

Y. Suzuki, J. Ohkawara, S. Narahashi, NTT DOCOMO, INC., Yokosuka, Japan

This paper analyzes the characteristics when compensating for wideband intermodulation distortion (IMD) components of a fabricated 3.5-GHz band 140-W class feed-forward power amplifier (FFPA). The fabricated FFPA achieves the bandwidths of 160 MHz and 120 MHz when compensating for the IMD components for LTE signals with the bandwidths of 5 MHz and 20 MHz. Experimental and analysis results show that the FFPA compensates for the wideband IMD components when the IMD component compensation level is reduced. This paper shows that the FFPA is a worthwhile linearizer that compensates for 3.5-GHz band wideband IMD components.

15:00         C02.5  HAMMERSTEIN PREDISTORTER FOR HIGH POWER RF AMPLIFIERS IN OFDM TRANSMITTERS

T. Sadeghpour1, H. Karkhaneh2, R. Abd-Alhameed1, A. Ghorbani2, I. T. E. Elfergani1, Y. A. S. Dama1;  1University of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom; 2Amirkabir university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing) is a wideband digital modulation scheme which is critically dependent on linearity in the hardware system, due to its reliance on Fourier Transformation and its inherently high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and minimization of nonlinearity is thus a priority. In this paper the effectiveness of a predistortion based on the Hammerstein model is investigated by measurement of Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) in AWGN channel and Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR). Accuracy of prediction of Power amplifier (PA) nonlinearity with memory effect and baseband predistorter is investigated by the experimental results.

15:20         C02.6  ADAPTIVE BIAS LINC ARCHITECTURE FOR WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS

S. Lin, A. E. Fathy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States

A novel adaptive bias LInear amplification with Nonlinear Components (LINC) transmitter is introduced and simulated. Where predistortion is applied to the baseband signal; thus the bias of the high efficient power amplifier (PA) is adaptively changed according to the envelop distribution of the modulated baseband signal and the PA itself. This novel transmitter can simultaneously achieve relatively high average efficiency and linearity even with a high peak-to-average (PAR) signal. A comprehensive simulation framework has been developed to validate this adaptive bias scheme with 16, 32, and 64 QAM signals, which have higher than 5 dB PAR levels.

15:40          End of the Session

DB1: Modeling of High Frequency Devices and Circuits

Session Chairs: Peter Russer, Irsadi Aksun

Session     DB1

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-17:20

Room        Dolmabahçe B

13:40         DB1.1  VESELAGO-PENDRY SUPERLENS IMAGING MODELED WITH A SPECTRAL WAVEGUIDE APPROACH

R. S. Hegde, Y. L. Hor, Z. Szabo, E. Li, W. J. R. Hoefer, Institute of high performance computing, SINGAPORE, Singapore

A spectral waveguide model of a superlens imaging system is presented. This model offers advantages in the analysis of dynamics and reality effects and in accurate numerical simulation. Insights into the dynamic response of the superlens, gained from both theoretical and numerical studies, are presented. The effect of loss on the dynamic properties is investigated. In addition, the proposed model leverages a wealth of expertise available for the design of filters, artificial dielectrics and backward wave structures and could possibly aid in the engineering of practical super-resolution imaging systems that will be an enabling technology for future nanoelectronics systems.

14:00         DB1.2  LIQUID RF ANTENNAS, ELECTRONICS AND SENSORS: A MODELING CHALLENGE

A. Traille, M. M. Tentzeris, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, United States

In this paper we present a novel approach for the modeling of multi-phase liquid RF electronics and sensors problems. The deployment of level-set based multi-phase simulation could potentially lead to the development of a new generation of computationally efficient approaches that could bridge the gap between Maxwell and solid/liquid-interface equations. Numerous examples of liquid antennas and solid/liquid wireless biosensors will be presented at the conference to verify the accuracy and validity of the above approach in a variety of liquid radio-frequency wearable, implantable and printable topologies.

14:20         DB1.3  SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL MODELING OF FEW-CYCLE TI:SAPPHIRE LASERS

M. Y. Sander1, L.-J. Chen1, F. X. Kaertner1,2;  1MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States; 2DESY, Hamburg, Germany

In few-cycle Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers, the laser crystal is exposed to extremely high intensities which can induce crystal damage. Modeling of the intracavity pulse dynamics can deepen the understanding of the different phenomena contributing to damage and how to best optimize the laser performance. We present a one-dimensional laser model based on dispersion managed mode-locking that accurately captures the temporal and spectral intracavity dynamics and reproduces the output characteristics in great detail. Furthermore, a spatiotemporal model is introduced that incorporates plasma formation to simulate the spatial beam propagation in agreement with experimental observations.

14:40         DB1.4  ACCURATE PHOTONIC ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

A. Khilo1, C. M. Sorace1, J. R. Birge1, F. X. Kaertner1,2;  1Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States; 2DESY-Center for Free-Electron Laser Science and Hamburg University, Hamburg, Germany

Photonic analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are attracting significant interest due to promise of overcoming the problem of aperture jitter and improving ADC performance level by orders of magnitude. This work examines several critical factors which define the accuracy of an optically-sampled wavelength-demultiplexed ADC built on a silicon chip using silicon photonic technology. These factors are the optical power-dependent shot noise, optical power-dependent nonlinearities due to two-photon and free-carrier absorption in silicon, and nonlinear transfer function of a silicon modulator. Ways to reduce the impact of these factors on ADC accuracy are considered.

15:00         DB1.5  FAST AND ACCURATE DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR MILLIMETER-WAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

B. Laemmle1, K. Schmalz2, C. Scheytt2, D. Kissinger1, R. Weigel1;  1Institute for Electronics Engineering, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2IHP, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany

In this paper the design of integrated passive and active circuits in silicon by use of rigorous electromagnetic analysis. A broadband directional coupler has been designed with large bandwidth at 110 GHz center frequency and measured from 20 to 140 GHz. The simulation is compared to measurement showing very good agreement. A VCO has been designed at 116 GHz center frequency. The measurement of the center frequency is within 1% of simulation. The design methodology for a 240-GHz power detector also is given showing the design of a L-type matching network.

15:20         DB1.6  SELF-CONSISTENT SIMULATION OF LOCAL POTENTIAL IN EXTERNAL-GATE BIASED GRAPHENE NANORIBBONS

D. Mencarelli, T. Rozzi, L. Pierantoni, Universit Politecnica delle Marche - Ancona -Italy, Ancona, Italy;  F. Coccetti, LAAS-CNRS, Toulouse, France  

We report on the self-consistent analysis of armchair graphene nanoribbon (GNR) field-effect transistors (FET), in the case of multi-band coherent carrier transport. In principle, the same approach can be extended to include the contribution to charge transport due to different layers of a few-layer GNR-FET. To the aim of demonstrating the versatility of our simulation tool, we provide interesting examples about the dependence of charge and self-consistent potential on the gate voltage, for small drain voltages: these include details of numerical convergence of the iterative system of Poisson and Schrӧdinger equations

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         DB1.7  AC CONDUCTIVITY OF METALLIC CARBON NANOTUBES (CNTS) EXPOSED TO A DC FIELD

M. Dagher1, D. Sounas1, R. Martel2, C. Caloz1;  1Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

The AC conductivity of a carbon nanotube (CNT) is derived and it is shown that it can become negative when the CNT is exposed to a DC axial field in addition to the AC field. For this purpose, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is solved within the relaxation time approximation (RTA) by separating the AC and DC contributions. The AC carrier distribution and the AC conductivity are found via a semi-analytical procedure. Absolute negative AC conductivity is found for a DC field above 10^5 V/m, which is a promising result toward enabling CNT traveling-wave amplifiers.

16:20         DB1.8  EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT SYNTHESIS FOR MICROSTRIP STRUCTURES DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION

A. Gorbunova, Y. Kuznetsov, Moscow Aviation Institute (State Technical University), Moscow, Russian Federation

The paper suggests network synthesis algorithm used limited band scattering parameters of microwave devices. Presentation of the model in the form of an equivalent electric circuit maintains its feasibility as a microwave device under variation of parameters in the process of optimization. The proposed approach is based on the simple description of the microwave structures using lumped element network. The submitted example of synthesis illustrates the microstrip filter design.

16:40         DB1.9  MICROMACHINED J-BAND RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE FILTER

M. Vahidpour, K. Sarabandi, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

Fully micromachined waveguide filters are realized based on metal E-plane rods. The rods make a series of shunt inductors separated by the length of the waveguide. Two- and three- pole filter designs for 230~245 GHz bands constructed in WR-3 waveguide are introduced. The filters are microfabricated by etching the rods and waveguides on one silicon wafer which later is bonded with another metal-coated wafer. The devices are measured using a J-band S-parameter test and the measurement results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

17:00         DB1.10  INFINITE INTEGRALSWITH THEWEIGHTED AVERAGES ALGORITHM

J. R. Mosig, A. G. Polimeridis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland

A new version of the weighted averages (WA) algorithm, called generalized WA, is introduced. Generalized WA exhibit a more compact formulation, devoid of iterative and recursive steps, and a wider range of applications. It is more robust, as it provides a unique formulation, valid for real and imaginary parameters. The implementation of the new version is easier and more efficient. Preliminary numerical examples show the promise of the generalized WA that become the most interesting version among the generic class of WA algorithms, which are currently recognized as the most competitive algorithms to evaluate Sommerfeld integral tails.

17:20          End of the Session

E02 – Lightning and Related Effects I

Session Chairs: Vladimir A. Rakov, Z. Kawasaki

Session     E02

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-17:20

Room        Galata

13:40         E02.1  LIGHTNING RETURN STROKES TO TALL TOWERS: ABILITY OF ENGINEERING MODELS TO REPRODUCE NEARBY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

A. Mosaddeghi, A. Shoory, F. Rachidi, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland;  M. Rubinstein, 2University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon, Switzerland;  G. Diendorfer, H. Pichler, Austrian Lightning Detection and Information System, Vienna, Austria;  D. Pavanello, Colge Champittet, Lausanne, Switzerland  

We present measurements of nearby vertical and horizontal electric fields from leaders and return strokes associated with lightning strikes to the 100-m tall Gaisberg Tower in Austria obtained in 2007 and 2008. The fields were measured at a distance of about 20 m from the towers vertical axis. Simultaneously with the fields, return-stroke currents were also measured at the top of the tower. The measured data are used to test engineering models for the return stroke. In general, the agreement between measured waveforms and model-predicted ones are satisfactory.

14:00         E02.2  FDTD SIMULATION OF FIELD-REDUCTION EFFECT AT GROUND DUE TO CORONA AT LIGHTNING-TRIGGERING WIRE

Y. Baba, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan;  V. A. Rakov, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA  

The effect of an upward-extending wire used for artificial lightning initiation from thunderclouds and the corona space charge emanated from this wire on the close electric field (prior to lightning initiation) on the ground has been examined using the FDTD method. When the wire-top altitude is 200 m, the reduction of upward-directed electric field at a horizontal distance of 60 m is 15, 23, 28, and 38% relative to the background value at ground surface of 10 kV/m for corona radii, 0.27, 2, 4, and 10 m, respectively. These calculated results agree well with measurements.

14:20         E02.3  INFLUENCE OF RETURN STROKE SPEED AND LEADER LINE CHARGE DENSITY ON LIGHTNING CORONA SHEATH DYNAMICS

G. Maslowski, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, Poland;  V. A. Rakov, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  

Positive transferred charge inside the lightning channel core during the return-stroke stage dominates the total charge when the speed of the return stroke current wave is relatively low and negative leader line charge density is less than typical values inferred from field measurements. As a result, the positive charge inside the channel during the return-stroke stage can be temporarily greater than the negative charge deposited by the preceding leader. This may explain significant positive overshoots in radial electric fields measured with a Pockels sensor close to the triggered lightning channel at ground.

14:40         E02.4  LIGHTNING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND INDUCED VOLTAGES: INFLUENCE OF CHANNEL TORTUOSITY

A. Andreotti1, U. De Martinis1, C. Petrarca1, V. A. Rakov2, L. Verolino1;  1University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Models for calculation of lightning induced overvoltages usually assume a straight and vertical lightning channel. However, it is well known that the lightning path is tortuous on scales ranging from 1 m to 1 km. In this paper the tortuosity effect is analyzed for both lightning-generated electromagnetic fields and induced voltages. For a schematic representation of tortuous lightning channel, it is shown that at close and intermediate ranges the predominant effect is due to the inclination of the lowest channel segment; only for fields at relatively far ranges the overall tortuosity effect becomes appreciable.

15:00         E02.5  RADIO-PHYSICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR THUNDERSTORM FIELD PERTURBATIONS

E. A. Mareev, V. V. Klimenko, Y. V. Shlyugaev, M. V. Shatalina, D. I. Iudin, Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation

Complex field experiments have been undertaken on the basis of the observational set-up arranged in the Upper-Volga Region during the convective seasons of 2005-2010. Spectral and statistical characteristics of electric field perturbations in the vicinity of thunderstorm clouds have been investigated. Statistical analysis allowed us to relate found peculiarities with different stages of thunderstorm generator dynamics. We develop our fractal simulation code to take into account the spatio-temporal dynamics of a cloud discharge, to compare the results with the observations and to address several actual problems of lightning initiation physics.

15:20         E02.6  STEPPED LEADER CHARACTERISTICS IN DEVELOPING HORIZONTALLY WITHIN THUNDERCLOUDS AND IN DESCENDING OUT OF THUNDERCLOUDS

S. Yoshida, M. Akita, T. Morimoto, T. Ushio, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan;  Z. Kawasaki, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, Alexandria, Egypt  

We examine VHF and optical images of cloud-to-ground flashes to study IC leaders that propagated within thunderclouds and CG leaders that descended outside thunderclouds. It is shown that IC leaders developed smoothly and CG leaders propagated in a heavily branched manner. We speculate that, in the case of IC leaders, only the leader tip having the highest charge density in the channel could propagate in E-field intensified by local positive charge. In the case of CG leaders, not only leader tips but also lower parts of the leader could initiate new branches due to higher charge density.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         E02.7  DEVELOPMENT OF THE BROADBAND RADAR NETWORK WITH HIGH RESOLUTION

T. Ushio1, E. Yoshikawa1, N. Wakayama1, S. Shimamura1, S. Yoshida1, T. Morimoto1, Z. Kawasaki1,2;  1Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 2Egypt Japan University of Science and Technology, Alexandria, Egypt

A small-baseline weather radar network consisting of the Ku-band broadband radars (BBR) for meteoro-logical application is developed. The BBR is a remarkably high-resolution close-range Doppler radar designed for detecting and analyzing rapidly evolving weather phenomena such as severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, and downbursts, which often cause damage to our lives seriously. A radar network with several BBRs (the BBR network) observes multi-directionally and simultaneously these severe phenomena with high reso-lution and accuracy. In this presentation, the concept of the project and the initial observation results of the BBR network were presented.

16:20         E02.8  A MACROMODEL-BASED ALGORITHM FOR THE CALCULATION OF LIGHTNING RADIATED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND INDUCED VOLTAGES IN TRANSMISSION LINES

S. Mashayekhi, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada;  B. Kordi, University Of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada  

In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient algorithm for the calculation of lightning radiated electromagnetic (EM) fields in the space. These macromodel-based calculations will be done using a mixed time-frequency domain method. Vector Fitting algorithm is employed to trace the poles/residues position of the channel-base current-radiated electromagnetic fields system transfer function in different points of the space. The spatial representation of the poles and residues locations will result in efficient calculation of the induced voltage on the frequency dependent multiconductor transmission lines (MTL) over a lossy ground.

16:40         E02.9  EVALUATION OF THE COORAY-RUBINSTEIN FORMULA FOR DISTANCES FARTHER THAN A FEW KILOMETERS USING THE PARALLEL FDTD METHOD

M. Khosravi Farsani, R. Moini, S. H. H. Sadeghi, Amirkabir university of technology, tehran, Iran

a parallel finite difference time domain code is developed for the calculation of the horizontal electric field above ground for three distances of 2 Km, 5 Km and 10 Km from the return stroke channel. An electromagnetic model of lightning is adopted for the purpose of simulation. The obtained results are compared with those simulated by Cooray-Rubinstein formula (CR). The effect of ground's conductivity on the electric field value is also investigated. The results show that the accuracy of CR formula decreases as the grounds conductivity decreases or distance of observation point from the lightning channel becomes larger.

17:00         E02.10  AN IMPROVED DISTANCE FINDING TECHNIQUE FOR SINGLE-SITE LIGHTNING LOCATION SYSTEM USING REFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ANISOTROPIC IONOSPHERE

M. Ozaki, S. Yagitani, K. Miyazaki, I. Nagano, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan

The distance finding technique for a single-site lightning location system is evaluated by using theoretical sferics, which are calculated under the effect of the magnetized ionosphere. The calculated ionospheric reflection coefficients are stable at smaller incident angles, while they exhibit a poor reflection at larger incident angles around 70 degrees. The distance finding accuracy is improved when the 1st reflected pulse of the sferic having the largest incident angle is excluded in the estimation. The errors of the improved distance finding technique become less than 5%, while those of the previous technique using the 1st reflected pulse were 20%.

17:20          End of the Session

F02 – Attenuation and Depolarization in Satellite and Terrestrial Propagation

Session Chair: Bertram Arbesser-Rastburg

Session     F02

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-17:20

Room        Haliç

13:40         F02.1  STATISTICS OF RAIN ATTENUATION REVISITED

J. B. Andersen, P. C. Eggers, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark;  I. E. Otung, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, UK  

Millimeter frequency satellite links are prone to variations in attenuation over a large range, more than 30 dB. This has been considered to be caused by meteorological conditions. Statistical distributions have been fit-to-data with little or no physical insight. It is the purpose of this paper to test the hypothesis that the dynamic variations are Ricean or Rayleigh type fading, caused by multipath from the rain. This opens the possibility of exact distributions of Doppler variations and of the recently studied rain fade slope, which follows a Students t- distribution with the Doppler spread as parameter

14:00         F02.2  PREDICTING THE PROPAGATION LOSS THROUGH A TREE CANOPY AT MILLIMETER FREQUENCIES FORWARD SCATTERING APPROXIMATION 3-D VECTOR RADIATIVE TRANSPORT THEORY

S. A. Torrico, Comsearch, Bethesda, MD, United States;  R. H. Lang, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States  

The vector radiative transport theory is used to compute the attenuation produced by a tree canopy containing random located lossy-dielectric leaves and branches at millimeter wave frequencies. The forward scattering approximation is used to simplify the radiative transport equation. The forward scattering approximation is used since at millimeter frequencies, the leaves and branches are large and thick compared to the wavelength; hence, a leaf or a branch scatter energy strongly in the forward direction and weakly in all other directions. Leaves are modeled as flat-circular lossy-dielectric discs and branches as lossy-dielectric cylinders with prescribe orientation statistics.

14:20         F02.3  COMPUTATION OF RAIN ATTENUATION IN TROPICAL REGION WITH MULTIPLE SCATTERING AND MULTIPLE ABSORPTION EFFECTS USING EXPONENTIAL DROP SIZE DISTRIBUTION

F. F. Amrullah, E. Setijadi, G. Hendrantoro, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

Rain attenuation causes scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves and could be a significant problem in radio propagation, especially in tropical region which has high rainfall rate. In this paper, raindrop was modeled using exponential raindrop size distribution and computed with multiple scattering and multiple absorption effect previously derived. It was assumed that raindrop shape is spherical and has dielectric constant following the Double Debye Model. Based on the analysis, rain attenuation effects become significant for frequencies above 10 GHz and reach the peak at about 125 GHz. Other important results are also reported.

14:40         F02.4  KU-BAND SIGNAL DEPOLARIZATION OVER EARTH-SPACE PATH IN RELATION TO SCATTERING OF RAINDROPS AT A TROPICAL LOCATION

A. Maitra, A. Adhikari, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India

The depolarization of a satellite signal due to scattering by rain drops has been studied at a tropical location. The depolarization phenomenon is observed in terms of an enhancement of cross-polar component of a horizontally polarized Ku-band signal. The differential phase shifts, dominantly responsible for causing depolarization at Ku-band due to scattering by spheroidal raindrops, are computed by employing the point matching technique and using experimentally obtained rain drop size distribution (DSD) data. The differential phase shift is significant for large drops (> 3mm). Consequently, DSD plays an important role in determining the depolarization of the satellite signal.

15:00         F02.5  TWO YEAR RAIN ATTENUATION STATISTICS OVER A LINE OF SIGHT TERRESTRIAL MICROWAVE LINK OPERATING AT 30 GHZ IN TROPICAL REGION AMRITSAR (INDIA)

P. Sharma, Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

The precipitation in path of microwave communication links leads to fading of signal. The calculation of fade margin for 99.99 % of the time-availability of such links requires the knowledge of rain rate and attenuation levels for 0.01 % time of year. The ITU-R has given recommendations regarding rain rate and attenuation levels but it has been found that the recommendations are not suitable for tropical regions. The paper presents the experimental results of two year rain attenuation measurement program conducted in a tropical site Amritsar (India). The experimental results are different from that predicted by ITU-R.

15:20         F02.6  SOME MELTING LAYER CHARACTERISTICS AT TWO TROPICAL LOCATIONS IN INDIAN REGION

S. Das, A. Maitra, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Hydrometeors pose serious threat to satellite communication operating above 10 GHz. The designing line-of-sight link usually is based on the ITU-R models, which are often inadequate for tropical region. ITU-R model uses a yearly averaged constant rain height for the attenuation calculation, which may not be valid for tropics. This paper reports the study of rain height based on Micro Rain Radar and Radiosonde observations at two tropical locations in Indian region. Results suggest a possible modification in the rain attenuation model taking into account the melting layer height variation with the season and rain rate.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         F02.7  ANALYSIS OF RAINDROP SIZE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS IN MALAYSIA FOR RAIN ATTENUATION PREDICTION

H. Y. Lam, D. Jafri, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia;  L. Luini, C. Capsoni, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy;  A. D. Panagopoulos, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece  

Variability of rainfall characteristics in the equatorial regions is a key problem in estimating adequate fade margin due to rain attenuation in satellite communication. Based on disdrometer data collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, this paper investigates the characteristics of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) and the dependence of rain attenuation on the DSD. Its diurnal variation and the role of critical diameter values on the estimation of specific attenuation are also discussed. Preliminary results suggest that satellite links operating in the afternoon and early evening hours should be provided with an extra fade margin to compensate for rain attenuation impairments.

16:20         F02.8  DIMENSIONAL STATISTICS OF RAINFALL SIGNATURE AND FADE DURATION FOR MICROWAVE PROPAGATION IN NIGERIA

J. S. Ojo, O. M. Ajewole, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria., ONDO, Nigeria

As the communication services are increasingly demanding more access for higher frequencies up to Ka-band and beyond, dimensional statistics of rainfall for predicting rain induced attenuation is required for estimating the link budget and the communication performance. Attenuation due to rain restricts the path length of radio communication systems and limits the usage of higher frequencies for terrestrial point-to-point microwave links and satellite communications. In this paper, some results of dimensional statistics of rainfall signature and fade duration are presented. Rain events are studied to examine the efficacy of predicting the attenuations from point rain rate measurements

16:40         F02.9  GENERATION OF AN EMPIRIC PROPAGATION MODEL FOR FOREST ENVIRONMENT AT GSM900/GSM1800/CDMA2100

M. Bitirgan1,2, Y. E. Yoruk1,2, S. Celik1,2, O. Kurnaz1, S. Helhel1,1, S. Ozen1,1;  1Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 2Turkcell Iletisim Hizmetleri A.S, Antalya, Turkey

This paper represents a generation of an empiric propagation model for a certain pine tree environment. An empiric model has been obtained by the addition of vegetation loss factor L into the free space model by using both forest and open area measurements. Three different models for different operating band have been generated. The model error increased with frequency from 900MHz to 1800MHz, but it reached smallest value at CDMA2100. This could be a result of large (5MHz) bandwidth of CDMA2100. For better models, curve fitting techniques can be used to determine L as a function of tree number.

17:00         F02.10  TO THE PROBLEM OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES PROPAGATION IN TURBULENT MAGNETIZED PLASMA SLAB

G. V. Jandieri, Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi, Georgia;  A. Ishimaru, University of Washington, Seattle, USA;  K. Yasumoto, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan;  V. G. Jandieri, Kyungpook National University, Buk-Gu, Daegu, Republic of Korea;  N. N. Zhukova, M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, Tbilisi, Georgia  

Second order statistical moment of the ordinary and extraordinary waves scattered by turbulent magnetized plasma slab with electron density and magnetic field fluctuations is analytically calculated applying the perturbation method. Numerical calculations are carried out for the anisotropic Gaussian fluctuation spectrum at different anisotropy factor and the angle of inclination of prolate irregularities with respect to the external magnetic field. Phase portraits of correlation function of the phase and amplitude fluctuations of scattered radiation are constructed. It is shown that correlation between ordinary and extraordinary wave decreases in proportion to the anisotropic factor.

17:20          End of the Session

G02 – Measuring and Modeling the Ionospheric Electron Density Profile

Session Chairs: Dieter Bilitza, B Zolesi, Bodo Reinisch

Session     G02

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-17:20

Room        Topkapi A

13:40         G02.1  OPTIMIZATION OF F2 LAYER PARAMETERS USING IRI-PLAS AND IONOLAB-TEC

O. Sahin, ASELSAN, Ankara, Turkey;  U. Sezen, F. Arikan, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey;  O. Arikan, BILKENT UNIVERSITY, Ankara, Turkey  

In this study, the relation of the maximum ionization height (HmF2) and the critical frequency (FoF2) of F2 layer is examined within their parametric range through the International Reference Ionosphere extended towards the plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) model and the IONOLAB-TEC. HmF2 and FoF2 are optimized using an iterational loop through Non-Linear Least Squares method. HmF2 and FoF2 are obtained for various locations including Turkey for the same quiet day. Results are compared with ionosonde data where available. This study enables the modification and update of empirical and deterministic IRI Model to include instantaneous variability of the ionosphere.

14:00         G02.2  A NEW VARY-CHAP MODEL OF TOPSIDE ELECTRON DENSITY PROFILES BASED ON ISIS-2 DATA

B. W. Reinisch1,2, P. Nsumei1, X. Huang1, D. Bilitza2;  1University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, United States; 2Lowell Digisonde International, Lowell, MA, United States

A new model of the topside electron density distribution is developed for IRI. The new Vary-Chap function is a generalized Chapman profile with a continuously varying shape function S(h): N/Nm = 1/S^2 {exp[(1-Y-exp-Y)/2]} with Y an integral function of S(h). This equation is solved for S(h), and S(h) functions for 80,000 ISIS-2 profiles are calculated. A parameterized function S*(h) is fitted to each shape function characterizing the shape of the profiles without direct dependence on hm and NmF2.

14:20         G02.3  INVESTIGATION OF THE BOTTOMSIDE / TOPSIDE CONTRIBUTION TO THE TOTAL ELECTRON CONTENT AT EUROPEAN MID-LATITUDES

I. E. Zakharenkova, I. I. Shagimuratov, I. V. Cherniak, West Department of IZMIRAN, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation;  A. Krankowski, A. Krypiak-Gregorczyk, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland  

The electron density profiles, derived from FormoSat-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements and European mid-latitude ionosondes Pruhonice and Juliusruh, were analyzed in order to compare the contribution of bottomside and topside ionosphere to the GPS-derived total electron content. Analysis was carried out for different seasonal conditions during period of low solar activity; special attention was focused on the differences in these parts contribution to total electron content for night and daytime hours.

14:40         G02.4  MEASUREMENTS AND IRI MODEL PREDICTIONS DURING THE RECENT SOLAR MINIMUM

D. Bilitza, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States;  S. A. Brown, M. Y. Wang, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, United States;  P. A. Roddy, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom, Massachusetts, United States  

Comparisons of CHAMP and GRACE electron density measurements with predictions of the URSI International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) have shown significant differences during the recent extended solar minimum, while ionosonde data do not seem to show differences of similar magnitude. We have further evaluated the performance of IRI during this period using C/NOFS PLP data and ionosonde data from middle and low latitude stations. We also study the impact of uncertainties in the predictions of solar indices on the IRI densities.

15:00         G02.5  SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF THE LOW- AND MID-LATITUDE IONOSPHERE AS REVEALED BY MODAL DECOMPOSITION

E. R. Talaat, X. Zhu, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, United States

We examine two approaches to capture the modes of spatial and temporal variability observed in the ionosphere: 1. decomposition into modes as functions of local time and zonal wavenumber and 2. analysis using empirical orthogonal function decomposition and the corresponding principal component analysis technique. The spectral analysis of the different time series of reveals how different mechanisms such as solar flux variation, change of the orbital declination, nonlinear mode coupling and geomagnetic activity are separated and expressed in different modes. We also perform similar analysis performed on output from the TIE-GCM to provide insight on the observed phenomena.

15:20         G02.6  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF IONOSPHERIC ACTIVITY IN THE PERIOD OF LOW SOLAR ACTIVITY USING DPS-4 IONOSONDE DATA

M. V. Tolstikov, A. V. Medvedev, K. G. Ratovsky, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP), Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russian Federation

In investigation of fundamental problems of ionosphere physics always large attention was given to the observational data during low solar activity, when there was a capability to minimize influence of external factors. On the basis of regular, continuous measurement of the Irkutsk ionospheric sounder the automated method of researches of ionospheric disturbances was designed. Statistical analysis of disturbances of an electron concentration during 2004 - 2009 was done. Main problem of the analysis was determination of total number of perturbed days and determination of total number of wave disturbances depending on a level of solar activity, season and time.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         G02.7  INTEGRATION OF MULTI INSTRUMENT IONOSPHERIC PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS USED FOR NEAR EARTH ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING

H. Rothkaehl1, A. Krankowski2, R. Sieradzki2, D. Przepirka1, E. Słomińska1, A. Krypiak-Gregorczyk2;  1Space Research Center Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Geodynamics Research Laboratory (GRL/UWM), Olsztyn, Poland

The aim of this presentation is to show global distribution of plasma parameters diagnosed by various measuring techniques as: in situ wave and plasma diagnostics registered on board of DEMETER satellite, GPS IGS/EPN network, GPS Antarctic and Arctic IGS observation and the data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC measurements. We are willing to present and validate the properties of the ionospheric electron density profiling retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. We would like also to discuss the limitation of presented diagnose techniques with respect to different geomagnetic condition and localisation in space.

16:20         G02.8  3-D INVERSION OF IONOSONDE DATA FOR IONOSPHERIC ELECTRON DENSITY: NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND BENEFITS FOR ASSIMILATIVE MODELING

N. A. Zabotin, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States

Modern phase-based digital ionosondes have capabilities to measure accurately both the group time of propagation and the directions of arrival for each ionogram echo. Inversion algorithm NeXtYZ uses this information to recover locally both true vertical profile and horizontal gradients of ionospheric plasma density. For the first time in ionospheric sounding practice this algorithm provides justifiable profile uncertainties that characterize specific ionogram and obey Gaussian statistics. Horizontal gradients not only describe the plasma density distribution directly but also quantify energetics and dynamics of the ionosphere and thermosphere through characterization of the gravity waves and of the neutral wind.

16:40         G02.9  MONITORING D-REGION VARIABILITY FROM LIGHTNING MEASUREMENTS

F. Simoes1, J.-J. Berthelier2, R. Pfaff1, D. Bilitza1, J. Klenzing1;  1NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States; 2UPMC, Paris, France

In situ measurements of ionospheric D-region characteristics are somewhat scarce and rely mostly on sounding rockets. Remote sensing techniques employing Very Low Frequency (VLF) transmitters can provide electron density estimates from subionospheric wave propagation modeling. Here we discuss how lightning waveform measurements, namely sferics and tweeks, can be used for monitoring the D-region variability and day-night transition, and for local electron density estimates. A brief comparison among D-region aeronomy models is also presented.

17:00         G02.10  MODELING IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION OF LOW FREQUENCY SIGNALS FOR REMOTE SENSING PURPOSES USING CHARGE DENSITY PROFILES

E. D. Schmitter, University of Applied Sciences Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck, Germany

The use of powerful low frequency transmitter signals is a well established technique for remote sensing of the lower ionosphere. Standard tools for calculating propagation conditions like the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code - rely on default procedures for modeling the day-night transition conditions that do not map reality sufficiently for modeling purposes. We propose an improved method by making use of the possibility to introduce charge density profiles into the LWPC that vary appropriately over the day-night cycle and additionally can model disturbances caused by forcing of the lower ionosphere from above and below.

17:20          End of the Session

H02 – Micro/macro-scale Kinetic Processes at Boundary Layers in Terrestrial and Planetary Environments

Session Chair: Bertrand Lembège

Session     H02

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-17:20

Room        Topkapi B

13:40         H02.1  DYNAMICS OF QUASI-PERPENDICULAR SHOCKS: RECENT RESULTS ISSUED FROM 2D PIC SIMULATION

T. Umeda, Y. Kidani, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan;  S. Matsukiyo, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Japan  

Cross-scale coupling between fluid dynamics and particle kinetics at perpendicular collisionless shocks is an issue of space plasma physics. The influence of shock-front ripples to the dynamics of shocks is studied by means of a large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The present simulation has confirmed the transition of shock structures from the cyclic self-reformation to the quasi-stationary shock front due to rippled structures at the shock front.

14:00         H02.2  MICROTURBULENCE AT THE FRONT OF SUPERCRITICAL QUASIPERPENDICULAR SHOCKS

L. Muschietti, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, United States;  B. Lembege, Latmos-UVSQ-IPSL-CNRS, Guyancourt, France  

The drift of the reflected ion beam versus the electrons across the magnetic field can easily destabilize waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range. Several Bernstein harmonics can be unstable, depending upon the ion beam's drift and temperature. With electromagnetic PIC simulations we investigate their nonlinear characteristics. First, high harmonics develop in agreement with dispersion properties. Second, an inverse cascade occurs whereby the spectrum shifts toward lower k-modes to eventually accumulate on the first harmonic. The late phase showcases a magnetic component to the spectrum and a significant energy transfer from the ion beam to the electrons.

14:20         H02.3  A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TERRESTRIAL AND PLANETARY BOW SHOCKS

H. Kucharek, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States

Shocks are spectacular and energetic events in the Universe. Generated by supernovae, stellar winds, and the solar wind they have important effects. They are accelerators and they act on galactic nebula triggering formation of planetary systems. The Earths bow shock results from the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Being a prime science objective of many missions it has been studied in detail. We now obtained data from Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. In this presentation we will review similarities and differences of these shocks in shape, topology, solar wind interaction and highlight key science questions.

14:40         H02.4  NONLINEAR MIRROR MODE STRUCTURES IN MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MODELS

M. Shoji, Y. Omura, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan;  L.-C. Lee, National Central University, Taiwan, Taiwan  

We obtain the difference of the mirror mode magnetic structures between 2D and 3D hybrid simulations. The magnetic dip structure can be found only in the 2D model with low ion beta conditions. In the 3D model or 2D model with high ion beta, we obtain the magnetic peak structures. From the pressure balance condition between the magnetic field and the protons, how the difference of the magnetic structures in the 2D model between the ion betas occurs is shown.

15:00         H02.5  THEMIS-DOUBLE STAR-CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS OF RECONNECTION AND DYNAMICS ACROSS THE DAYSIDE MAGNETOPAUSE.

M. W. Dunlop, RAL, STFC, DIDCOT, United Kingdom

Study of the extent across the Earths magnetopause of magnetic reconnection (MR) has recently benefitted from an unprecedented growth in complexity of multi-point, in situ measurements, on the small and meso-scale. Nevertheless, direct measurements of the small active region are still relatively rare, owing to the time variable nature of the near-Earth environment. We report direct evidence of X-line structure resulting from MR at widely separated locations and a full traversal through a reconnection layer. Observations are taken from conjunctions of 4-Cluster, 5-THEMIS and the Double Star, TC-1 spacecraft.

15:20         H02.6  MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE MAGNETOPAUSES OF SATURN, JUPITER AND THE EARTH

R. J. Walker, UCLA, Los Angeles, United States;  K. Fukazawa, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan;  T. Ogino, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan  

We use global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to compare the responses of Saturn, Jupiter and the Earth to the solar wind. We investigate the magnetospheric boundaries in the presence of dayside reconnection and find waves on the boundary that are consistent with the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability. At the Earth and Jupiter reconnection erodes the dayside magnetopause but there is little erosion at Saturn. The waves at Earth are caused by solar wind velocity shear. At Saturn the solar wind velocity shear combines with rotating Kronian plasma to create the waves. At Jupiter rotating Jovian flows cause the instability.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         H02.7  PLASMA TRANSPORT PROCESSES AT THE HIGH LATITUDE MAGNETOSPHERE OBSERVED BY CLUSTER

Q. Q. Shi1, Q. Q-G. Zong2, Z. Y. Pu2, S. Y. Fu2, M. W. Dunlop3, Y. Wei2, Y. F. Wang2, W. J. Sun1, T. Xiao1;  1Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, China; 2School of Earth and space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China; 3Space Sciences Division, SSTD, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, UK

Cluster four spacecraft data is used to study the spatial-temporal characteristics in/near the high and mid-altitude cusp under northward IMF. In our previous work a transition layer equatorward of the cusp was observed, which is suggested to be the entry layer during northward IMF. From event study and a further survey tailward of the Cusp, some transport processes of sheath-like ions in the magnetosphere are studied. Possible (dual) lobe reconnection model in the northward IMF condition are applied to explain these observations.

16:20         H02.8  THE ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS IN THE MAGNETOTAIL AND THEIR AURORAL SIGNATURES

M. Ashour-Abdalla1,2, M. Zhou3, M. El-Alaoui1, D. Schriver1, R. Richard1, R. J. Walker1,2;  1UCLA, Los Angeles, Californi, United States; 2UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States; 3Nanchang University, Nanchang, P.R. China

By using data from the THEMIS and Cluster missions together with global magnetohydrodynamic and large scale kinetic particle simulations, we demonstrated that electrons were energized by two distinct mechanisms: betatron acceleration and reconnection processes. The simulation results were validated by comparing the electron energy flux at the equatorial plane with THEMIS observations. To determine the auroral signatures of these processes we calculated the corresponding precipitating electron energy fluxes at different times. We found a direct correspondence between the earthward movement of the dipolarization fronts and the location of the precipitating energy flux.

16:40         H02.9  STOCHASTIC FERMI ACCELERATION IN THE EARTH'S MAGNETOTAIL CURRENT SHEET: NUMERICAL STUDIES

S. Perri, A. Greco, G. Zimbardo, Universita' della Calabria, Rende, Italy

We show results from 2D and 3D test particle simulations investigating the acceleration of protons interacting with stationary and time-dependent electromagnetic fields. In the 2D simulations we mimic a Fermi-like interaction between particles and randomly positioned oscillating clouds. A constant dawn-dusk electric field and a constant out of plane magnetic field are also present. The 3D model studies that process in a more realistic configuration: a modified Harris profile has also been added. Parametric studies have been performed and the results discussed also in comparison with spacecraft observations in both the distant and the near-Earth magnetotail.

17:00         H02.10  CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS OF ELECTROSTATIC ACCELERATION STRUCTURES ABOVE THE POLAR CAP AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR ORIGIN IN THE MAGNETOPAUSE BOUNDARY LAYER

D. Fontaine, A. Teste, LPP / CNRS, Palaiseau, France

During quiet periods of Northward IMF, CLUSTER observed electron acceleration structures at high altitudes along magnetic field lines connected to the polar and extended along the magnetopause boundary layers. The electrons are observed to be successively earthward and outward accelerated, forming current sheets of opposite polarities. The precipitating electrons are accelerated to keV-energies in relatively stable and broad structures. The outflowing electron beams, accelerated to weaker energies (tens of eV), form structures at much smaller scales. These acceleration structures are suggested to result from electrostatic structures generated at the interface between the magnetopause boundary layers and the lobes.

17:20          End of the Session

JT – Exploring the Epoch of Reionization with Low-Frequency Radio Telescopes (in memory of Donald C. Backer)

Session Chair: Subra Ananthakrishnan

Session     JT

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-14:40

Room        Marmara

13:40         JT.1  EXPLORING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION WITH LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO TELESCOPES

A. R. Parsons, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States

The Epoch of Reonization (EoR) represents a major frontier of cosmic evolution yet to be explored. Redshifted emission from the 21cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen provides a unique tracer of the primordial intergalactic medium. But with foregrounds that exceed the expected EoR signal by more than five orders of magnitude, the level of calibration needed for detecting this signal is unprecedented in the 100-200MHz band expected to encompass EoR. We will discuss the various instrumental approaches underway for achieving the necessary sensitivity and calibration, and discuss plans for second-generation antenna arrays that might explore EoR tomographically.

14:40          End of the Session

KBE – Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Breast Imaging

Session Chairs: Susan Hagness, Elise Fear

Session     KBE

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 13:40-17:00

Room        Loft

13:40         KBE.1  TOWARDS A PLANAR MICROWAVE TOMOGRAPHY SYSTEM FOR EARLY STAGE BREAST CANCER DETECTION

A. Diaz-Bolado1, T. Henriksson2, P.-A. Barriere1, H. Memarzadeh-Tehran1, N. Joachimowicz2, C. Conessa2, A. Joisel2, B. Duchene2, J.-J. Laurin1, J.-C. Bolomey2;  1Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Supelec, Paris, France

The advantages of planar Microwave Tomography applied to early stage breast cancer detection are presented. The breast is compressed between two dielectric plates in a configuration similar to that of X-ray mammography. This approach would allow the future implementation of a dual modality imaging system where the advantages of both techniques can be exploited. The research eff
orts for the development of a planar MT system are described, as well as, the key features of the latter. A numerical validation is used to show how the breast compression can lead to an enhancement of the reconstructed images.

14:00         KBE.2  DESIGN OF A MICROWAVE BREAST IMAGING ARRAY COMPOSED OF DUAL-BAND MINIATURIZED ANTENNAS

S. M. Aguilar, M. A. Al-Joumayly, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, S. C. Hagness, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

We present a compact dual-band patch antenna array designed for use in a 3-D microwave tomography system for breast imaging. The array is designed for operation within the interstitial space of an MRI patient support platform. This configuration permits scattered-field data acquisition with the breast in the same position as a benchmark MRI scan, thereby enabling precise co-registration with breast MRI. We investigate operating characteristics of the antenna array elements contained in the array using numerical simulations. We demonstrate that dual-band operation of the array is maintained in the presence of an ellipsoidal breast phantom.

14:20         KBE.3  MICROWAVE IMAGING FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION: COMPARISON OF TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING ALGORITHMS USING SINGLE-FREQUENCY AND TIME-DOMAIN DATA

T. Rubaek1, A. Fhager1, P. D. Jensen2, J. J. Mohr2, M. Persson1;  1Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity and conductivity in the breast. In this paper two nonlinear tomographic algorithm are compared - one is a single-frequency algorithm and the other is a time-domain algorithm.

14:40         KBE.4  ONGOING DEVELOPMENT OF MICROWAVE BREAST IMAGING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

M. Haynes, L. van Nieuwstadt, S. Clarkson, J. Stang, C. Ward, M. Moghaddam, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

We present ongoing work at the University of Michigan toward the goal of developing a microwave inverse scattering system for breast cancer imaging. The algorithm is built around the Born Iterative Method with a modified cost function allowing inclusion of a priori information. The calibration is based on a new formulation for S-parameter measurements. The liquid matching medium is an oil-water emulsion with high dielectric constant and moderate loss. Last, we designed a wide-band, linear-phase antenna for both frequency and time-domain applications. Finally, we present numeric studies of a CW microwave breast cancer therapy system.

15:00         KBE.5  EFFECTS OF NOISE ON TOMOGRAPHIC BREAST IMAGING

X. Zeng, A. Fhager, M. Persson, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

Breast tumor detection using microwaves has attracted considerable interests in the last few years. Two main approaches for microwave breast imaging are microwave tomography and radar based imaging. In both approaches, microwave signals are used to illuminate the breast and scattered signals are received at numerous locations. The microwave measurements are subject to noise, which may influence the detection of breast tumor. In this paper, we study the effect of noise on tomographic breast imaging by numerical simulations. A high contrast breast model is considered and the image reconstructions are carried out in time domain using a nonlinear inversion algorithm.

15:20         KBE.6  SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF MICROWAVE BREAST IMAGING TECHNIQUES: A COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES

V. De Santis, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy;  J. Bourqui, E. C. Fear, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada  

Safety assessment of ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave breast imaging (MBI) techniques is examined in this contribution. Specifically, two different approaches have been applied to evaluate the specific energy absorption (SA) produced by UWB antennas inside realistic breast models. The adopted power levels and pulse repetition periods of the tissue sensing adaptive radar (TSAR) system have been considered to be representative of frequency-swept MBI techniques. Three different unit voltage UWB pulses have been instead envisaged for MBI systems directly based on time-domain measurements. Results indicate that the evaluated SA is below limits prescribed by safety standards.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         KBE.7  FEASIBILITY STUDY OF TUMOR SIZE CLASSIFICATION VIA CONTRAST-ENHANCED UWB BREAST IMAGING A COMPLEX-DOMAIN ANALYSIS

S. Ahmad1, Y. Chen1, P. Kosmas2, W. L. Woo1, S. Dlay1;  1Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; 2King's College London, London, United Kingdom

In this paper, we study the feasibility of contrast-agent-aided ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave imaging for breast lesion size classification by studying received signals in the complex domain. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical phantom is employed to simulate electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation inside the breast and extract the reflected waveforms with and without microbubbles in the tumor site. The complex-domain transfer function of differential response is then used to draw the poles-zero plots (PZPs) and Bode plots (BPs), which demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for lesion size categorization.

16:20         KBE.8  IMPROVED CONFOCAL MICROWAVE IMAGING OF THE BREAST USING PATH-DEPENDENT SIGNAL WEIGHTING

M. O'Halloran, M. Glavin, E. Jones, Bioelectronics Cluster, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

Ultra Wideband radar is one of the most promising emerging technologies for the detection of breast cancer. Confocal Microwave Imaging was developed with the assumption that the breast is dielectrically homogeneous, allowing for the constructive addition of all returns from tumours within the breast. In a dielectrically homogeneous breast, each additional signal adds coherently, resulting in an improved image of tumours present. However, in dielectrically heterogeneous breasts, not all channels are equal. Therefore, the traditional CMI beamformer must be redesigned to reward channels with an unobscured view of a particular voxel within the breast, while also preserving antenna spatial diversity.

16:40         KBE.9  AN EXPERIMENTAL MICROWAVE IMAGING SYSTEM FOR BREAST TUMOR DETECTION ON LAYERED PHANTOM MODEL

I. Unal1, B. Turekten2, K. Surmeli2, C. Canbay1;  1Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2TUBITAK-BILGEM-UEKAE, Istanbul, Turkey

In this paper, the microwave imaging system currently being developed and realized at the Scientific and Technological Research Council-BILGEM, is introduced. A stacked patch antenna has been designed, fabricated and tested in operation in the experimental setup consisting of a spectrum analyzer (with vector network analysis option) and a planarly layered breast phantom model with tumor. Images are successfully obtained by using scattering electromagnetic waves from the tumor (S11). We were able to detect the elastic tumor model with 2 cm diameter by using so many frequency and position dependent raw datas.

17:00          End of the Session

J02 – Low Frequency Radio Astronomy II

Session Chairs: Joe Lazio, Yashwant Gupta, Anthony Beasley

Session     J02

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 14:40-17:20

Room        Marmara

14:40         J02.1  THE LONG WAVELENGTH ARRAY: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST STATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

G. B. Taylor, UNM, Albuquerque, NM, United States

The Long Wavelength Array (LWA) will be a new multi-purpose radio telescope operating in the frequency range 10-88 MHz. Scientific programs include pulsars, supernova remnants, general transient searches, radio recombination lines, solar and Jupiter bursts, investigations into the "dark ages" using redshifted hydrogen, and ionospheric phenomena. The first LWA station, LWA1, has just come-on line demonstrating the success of the LWA design concept. Additional information about the LWA is online at http://lwa.unm.edu. Partners in the LWA project include LANL, JPL, NRAO, NRL, UNM, NMT, and Virginia Tech.

15:00         J02.2  LOFAR: LESSONS FROM ITS DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

M. P. van Haarlem, R. C. Vermeulen, A. Gunst, ASTRON - Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Dwingeloo, Netherlands

LOFAR is a new radio telescope with 40 stations in the Netherlands and a further 8 in Germany, France, Sweden and the UK. It operates in the 30-240 MHz frequency range using unique and innovative techniques, many of which will find their way in future telescopes such as the SKA. With the construction of LOFAR almost complete we look back at its design and construction as well as the ongoing commissioning phase, and draw some conclusions on both successes and disappointments encountered along the way.

15:20         J02.3  THE EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY LOW BAND UPGRADE

T. E. Clarke1, R. A. Perley2, N. E. Kassim1, B. C. Hicks1, F. N. Owen2, S. Durand2, C. Kutz2, M. Pospieszalski3, K. W. Weiler1, T. L. Wilson1;  1Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, United States; 2National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM, United States; 3National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA, United States

The EVLA upgrade will enable full frequency coverage between 1 and 50 GHz. The legacy 74 and 330 MHz low frequency receivers have been largely decommissioned by compatibility issues with the new EVLA digital electronics. We describe an EVLA Low Band initiative to replace the existing narrow band receivers with a new low-noise, broadband system covering 66 to 470 MHz. The bandwidth at 74 MHz will increase by more than an order of magnitude while the 330 MHz bandwidth increases by a factor of 6. The initial deployment of the system will use the current limited bandwidth feeds.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         J02.4  LOW FREQUENCY APERTURE ARRAY DEVELOPMENTS FOR PHASE 1 SKA

J. G. Bij de Vaate1,2, E. D. Lera Acedo3, G. Virone4, A. Jiwani2, N. Razavi3, F. Perini5, K. Zarb-Adami6, J. Monari5, S. Padhi2, G. Addamo4, O. Peverini4, S. Montebugnoli5, A. Gunst1,7, P. Hall2, A. Faulkner3, A. V. Ardenne1;  1ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; 2ICRAR, Perth, Australia; 3University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 4CNR-EIIT, Torino, Italy; 5IRA-INAF, Bologna, Italy; 6University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; 7University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Aperture Arrays (AA) mark a new era in radio astronomy combining high sensitivity with a large field-of-view, enabling very high survey and imaging speeds. This paper describes the development of low frequency aperture arrays leading up to SKA phase 1 within the Aperture Array Verification Program (AAVP) as part of the SKA program.

16:20         J02.5  DEEP LARGE AREA SKY SURVEYS AT METRE WAVELENGTHS USING GMRT - SOME CHALLENGES

S. K. Sirothia, National Centre for Radio Astrophysics - Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune, India

We have been studying several fields (like ELAIS-N1, GOODS-N/S, AKARI deep field) and making their deep images at metre wavelengths using the GMRT. We are also carrying out, TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS). TGSS is radio continuum survey at 150 MHz, covering about 32000 sq. deg of the sky north of declination of -30 degrees and with typical rms noise of 7 mJy/beam at an angular resolution of about 20 arcsec. We describe some challenges and ways we tackle them for making these deep large area sky surveys at metre wavelengths using GMRT.

16:40         J02.6  THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY: A STATUS REPORT

M. F. Morales1, J. N. Hewitt2, B. Hazelton1, C. L. Williams2;  1University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; 2Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a low-frequency radio array under construction in Western Australia by a collaboration of U.S., Australian and Indian institutions. Science goals require a wide field of view, a large collecting area, and many antenna elements. The design involves 500 small, dipole phased arrays ('tiles") with about 10,000 square meters of aggregate collecting area, and cross-correlation of all pairs. A 32-tile prototype array is currently in operation at the Murchison Radio Observatory in the radio-quiet environment of the Western Australian outback. Initial scientific observations with the prototype are in progress.

17:00         J02.7  A NEW HELIOGRAPH OF THE UTR-2 RADIO TELESCOPE: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE

A. A. Koval, A. A. Konovalenko, A. A. Stanislavsky, Institute of Radio Astronomy, Kharkiv, Ukraine

A new instrument dedicated to observations of the outer corona of the Sun has been put in operation since 2010. It is based on the antenna system of UTR-2 radio telescope (Institute of Radio Astronomy, Kharkov, Ukraine). This radioheliograph is capable of producing two-dimensional brightness distribution images of the solar corona in the frequency range 8 - 33 MHz. At present this is the only instrument of its kind in the world in the above-mentioned frequency range for regular observations of the Sun. Included in this report is a description of the instrument construction and its some features.

17:20          End of the Session

CD – Advanced RF Integrated Circuits

Session Chairs: Nobuyuki Itoh, Shoichi Narahashi

Session     CD

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Monday, August 15, 16:00-17:20

Room        Dolmabahçe A

16:00         CD.1  A MICROSTRIP AMPLIFIER DESIGN SUBJECT TO THE TRANSISTOR PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS

F. Gunes, S. Demirel, Yýldýz Technical University, Istanbul, TURKEY

This paper presents synthesis of the microstrip matching circuits to be used at the input and/or output ports of the low-noise transistor. In this synthesis, input matching circuit matches the given generator impedance to the optimum noise impedance of the transistor while the output matching circuit matches the receiver impedance to the load impedance of the transistor which provides the available maximum gain within the maximum potential bandwidth at the expense of the minimum mismatching at the input port. A worked example is given all the details.

16:20         CD.2  EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF POWER AMPLIFIERS WITHOUT DEGRADED LINEARITY USING A NEW TOPOLOGY AND CONTROL METHOD

A. Ronaghzadeh, &. Demir, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

This paper presents a medium-power amplifier design method with two transistors of the same type in parallel. Using this technique two amplifiers were designed in class AB at 2.4 GHz. It is demonstrated that by careful selection of the transistor and dynamically tuning the gate bias of the individual devices and output matching of the whole amplifier according to input drive level, an increase of about 40% in PAE is achieved at 7 dB back-off from the P1dB of the class AB amplifier employing a fixed bias and matching network and giving the same maximum output power.

16:40         CD.3  DESIGN OF HIGH POWER S-BAND GAN MMIC POWER AMPLIFIERS FOR WIMAX APPLICATIONS

O. Cengiz, O. Kelekci, G. O. Arican, E. Ozbay, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey;  O. Palamutcuogullari, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey  

This paper reports two different S band GaN MMIC PA designs for WiMAX applications. First PA has a 42.6 dBm output power with a 55%PAE @ 3.5 GHz and 16 dB small signal gain in the 3.2-3.8 GHz frequency range. When two of these MMICs were combined by using off-chip Lange Couplers, 45.3 dBm output power with a 45%PAE @3.5Ghz and 16 dB small signal gain were obtained with less than 0.2 dB gain ripple in the 3.3-3.8 GHz frequency range.

17:00         CD.4  ON FURTHER DISCUSSION OF BARKHAUSEN CRITERION

S. Chatterjee, Kanailal Vidyamandir (Fr Section), Chandernagore, West Bengal, India;  B. N. Biswas, S. Pal, Sir J. C. Bose School of Engineering, Mankundu, Mankundu, Hooghly, West Benga, India  

It has been pointed out that Barkhausen criterion cannot be used as a general oscillation condition, to evaluate (1) growth of oscillation, (2) steady state amplitude of oscillation in terms of circuit and active device parameters and (3) to as certain amplitude and frequency stability of oscillation, (4) to audit the nature of oscillation whether it is soft-self or hard-self excited. Here it has been shown that all these limitations can be over come through clubbing of quasi-state and quasi-linearization techniques and modified Barkhausen criterion can also be applied to four terminal and two terminal oscillators.

17:20          End of the Session


 

A03 – Time Scale

Session Chair: P. Tavella

Session     A03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Dolmabahçe C

08:00         A03.1  STATUS OF UTC/TAI

F. Arias, G. Panfilo, G. Petit, BIPM, Sevres, France

This article presents how timescales are established and maintained at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), on the basis of international cooperation. We describe the characteristics of International Atomic Time (TAI) and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the main features of the methods used for their calculation.

08:20         A03.2  THE ROLE OF THE ITU-R IN TIME SCALE DEFINITION

R. L. Beard, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington,D.C., United States

The ITU is the leading United Nations agency for Radio and Telecommunications coordination worldwide. Frequency spectrum utilization is managed through Radio Conferences and Study Groups. An important aspect of spectrum utilization is the underlying coordination established by the broadcast international time scale used throughout the world. This international time scale is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) as a stepped atomic time scale enabling UT1 to be recovered from UTC. Todays systems utilize continuous timing consequently deliberations have been ongoing within the ITU-R on modifying UTC to be a continuous time scale.

08:40         A03.3  OVERVIEW OF JAPAN STANDARD TIME GENERATION

Y. Hanado, F. Nakagawa, H. Ito, K. Imamura, M. Hosokawa, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan

National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) generates and supplies Japan Standard Time (JST). JST is made from an average atomic time which is calculated by using 18 commercial Cs atomic clocks. In this calculation, there are some original methods in estimating clock rate and clock weighting. The actual signal of JST is generated by realization of this average atomic time. In this process, frequency control method was optimized recently and frequency stability of JST has been largely improved.

09:00         A03.4  MERGING MASER AND CESUIM CLOCKS IN TIMESCALES

D. Matsakis, US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, United States;  G. Panfilo, BIPM, Paris, France  

A variety of ways exist to combine clocks with different characteristics in a timescale. A Kalman Filter could assign different phase, frequency, and frequency drift process noises to the different clock types. In this paper we use an ensemble of cesium and maser clocks to construct a timescale that is based upon an average of masers that are detrended against a cesium-only frequency scale, and also one which is based upon an average of masers being steered to the cesium timescale. Different ensemble algorithms will be compared.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         A03.5  REAL-TIME GENERATION OF THE SIM TIME SCALE (SIMT) FROM INTERNATIONAL CLOCK COMPARISONS

J. M. Lopez R.1, M. A. Lombardi2, A. N. Novick2, F. Jimenez1, N. Diaz-Munoz1, E. de Carlos Lopez1, J.-S. Boulanger3, R. Pelletier3, R. de Carvalho4, R. Solis5, H. Sanchez6, L. C. Hernandez Forero7, J. Gordon8, D. Perez9, E. Bances10, L. Trigo11, V. Masi12, H. Postigo13, A. Questelles14, A. Gittens15, R. Ramos P.16;  1Centro Nacional de Metrologa (CENAM), Quertaro, Mexico; 2National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, United States; 3National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada; 4National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5Centro Nacional de Metrologa de Panam, Panama City, Panama; 6Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose, Costa Rica; 7Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, Bogota, Colombia; 8Bureau of Standards Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica; 9Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 10Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia, Guatemala City, Guatemala; 11Administracin Nacional De Usinas Y Trasmisiones Electricas, Montevideo, Uruguay; 12Instituto Tecnologia y Normalizacin, Asuncion, Paraguay; 13Instituto Nacional de Defensa de la Competencia y de la Proteccin de la Propiedad Intelectual, Lima, Peru; 14Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards, Macoya, Trinidad and Tobago; 15Saint Lucia Bureau of Standards, Castries, Saint Lucia; 16University of Concepcin, Concepcion, Chile

The Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) is one of the worlds five major regional metrology organizations (RMOs). It includes the national metrology institutes (NMIs) of the 34 nations of the Organization of American States (OAS). The SIM time network (SIMTN) continuously compares the time standards of SIM NMIs and produce measurement results in real-time by utilizing the Internet and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The SIMTN data are used for the real-time generation of an international time scale called SIMT. This paper provides a brief overview of the SIMTN and the SIMT.

10:00         A03.6  CURRENT STATUS OF THE FRENCH ATOMIC TIME SCALES TA(F) AND UTC(OP)

P. Uhrich, M. Abgrall, D. Valat, LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Paris, France

Two atomic time scales are currently generated by LNE-SYRTE: the French Atomic Time TA(F) and UTC(OP). TA(F) has been recently improved by the steering on Primary Frequency Standards, remaining close to the SI second within 1.8 x 10-15. A new UTC(OP) will be based on one Hydrogen Maser, steered on an ensemble clock, in addition to a steering on the laboratory PFS. First operational results are showing that staying within 30 ns from UTC should be feasible.

10:20         A03.7  ALGORITHM AND PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS OF NEW TIME SCALE OF NPLI

P. P. Thorat, P. Banerjee, National physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India

National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (NPLI) has been maintaining time scale UTC (NPLI) with only one cesium atomic clock. NPLI has recently developed an automatic intercomparison system for the development of better time scale combining all its five clocks. A new algorithm has also been developed for this purpose. Using this algorithm, the analysis has been done based on the preliminary measurement data. Algorithm seems to produce encouraging results. This paper elaborates the algorithm and presents the analytical observations

10:40         A03.8  TIMING IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS

J. Levine, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, United States

I describe the statistical considerations used to design systems whose clocks are compared using dial-up telephone lines or the Internet. The comparison is usually used to synchronize the time of a client system to the time of a server or to a national time scale. The design includes a dynamic estimate of the system performance and a comparison between the performance and the required stability based on external considerations. The algorithm adjusts the parameters of the algorithm to realize the specified performance at minimal cost, where the cost is proportional to the inverse of the polling interval.

11:00         A03.9  THE NEW TIME AND FREQUENCY LABORATORY FOR THE SARDINIA RADIO TELESCOPE

R. Ambrosini1, P. Bolli2, F. Gaudiomonte2, F. Messina2, M. Roma1;  1Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Bologna, Italy; 2Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Cagliari, Italy

A time laboratory was established at the Astronomical Observatory of Cagliari more than one century ago, aimed for time-tagging scientific observations. At present, this laboratory is facing up a deep refurbishment in order to cope with the much tighter specifications on phase noise, time resolution, and frequency stability required by the new scientific applications planned for the Sardinia Radio Telescope. As a result of the participation to millimeter Very Long Baseline Interferometry and pulsar timing experiments of SRT, the new Time and Frequency laboratory will be called to provide extremely low phase noise and highly stable frequency references.

11:20         A03.10  A DIGITAL TIME SCALE AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

S. Romisch, S. R. Jefferts, T. E. Parker, NIST, Boulder, CO, United States

An integrated time scale has as primary data a unit of duration (time interval) defined by atomic standards according to the definition of the SI second. The availability of more than one atomic standard allows for averaging, thereby improving the performance of the time scale with respect to each of the atomic standards (clocks). The measurement of time differences between the different clocks is at the core of a time scale. A novel approach to the measurement of time differences has been developed at NIST and will be compared with the present commercial state-of-the-art.

11:40         A03.11  SATELLITE CLOCKS CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING FOR GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS

A. Cernigliaro1,2, I. Sesia1;  1National Institute of Metrological Research (INRIM), Turin, Italy; 2Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy

In Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) the users position is determined measuring the time of flight of the signals broadcast from satellites and therefore it is fundamental to have precise and stable atomic clocks on board. The clock behaviour has hence to be continuously monitored and any malfunctioning has to be detected immediately to ensure the adequacy to the positioning service. This paper will describe the main methodologies for validation of on board clocks and their implementation in a robust software used at INRIM in the framework of the European project Galileo.

12:00          End of the Session

B03 – Hybrid Methods (in memory of Robert G. Kouyoumjian)

Session Chairs: Prabhakar Pathak, Giuliano Manara

Session     B03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

08:00         B03.1  THE CONTRIBUTION OF PROF. ROBERT KOUYOUMJIAN TO EDGE DIFFRACTION AND FIELD TRANSITION AT AND NEAR SHADOW BOUNDARIES USING UTD

C. A. Balanis, Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States

The development of the Kouyoumjian & Pathak UTD diffraction coefficient will be summarized. Applications of the UTD on basic and complex structures (from ground planes to airframes), based on my own personal experience, will be presented and the impact of the K & P UTD diffractions coefficient will be highlighted.

08:20         B03.2  A UNIFORM GEOMETRICAL THEORY OF DIFFRACTION (UTD) FOR CURVED EDGES ILLUMINATED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC BEAMS

P. H. Pathak, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States;  Y. Kim, Loral, Palo Alto, Calif., United States  

A UTD is presented for an arbitrary curved perfectly conducting wedge when it is illuminated by an electromagnetic (EM) complex source beam or even an astigmatic Gaussian beam. The UTD solution is developed from a generalization of the asymptotic high frequency solutions to appropriate canonical problems involving the diffraction of complex source beams by a straight wedge with planar faces that are perfect electrical conductors (PECs). Here, one cannot simply assume, apriori, the use of analytic continuation of the well known UTD for curved edges given previously for real sources to directly furnish the result for complex sources (beams).

08:40         B03.3  THE JOY OF UNDERSTANDING RAY TECHNIQUES AND UNIFORM THEORIES IN EM SCATTERING: I OBSERVED THE KELLERS CONE AT A HOTEL!

Y. Rahmat-Samii, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), LosAngeles, United States

It is with utmost gratitude that I present this invited paper at this 2011 General Assembly session dedicated to the memory and professional life of Prof. Kouyoumjian. He touched the technical life of almost everyone who dealt with the high frequency diffraction techniques. His work on UTD has secured his position as one our most celebrated researcher in our community. In this presentation I would like to re-visit Kellers diffraction theory and various uniform theories. Additionally, I would like to share an interesting recent experience on the observation of Kellers cone.

09:00         B03.4  A SURVEY ON THE EXTENSION OF THE UTD TO THE ANALYSIS OF INHOMOGENEOUS PLANE WAVE DIFFRACTION

G. Manara, P. Nepa, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

The extension of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) to the analysis of inhomogeneous plane wave diffraction is reviewed. The two-dimensional solution for the scattering of inhomogeneous plane waves by a perfectly conducting wedge in a lossless medium is introduced. This solution is then extended to account for dissipative losses in the medium surrounding the wedge, as well as non perfectly conducting wedges. Suitable expressions for the fields are also found in the more general three-dimensional case, for arbitrary polarization. Finally, suitable UTD expressions for calculating electromagnetic scattering from polygonal cylinders buried in lossy media are provided.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         B03.5  CONVERGENCE OF A FULLY OVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD

T. Peng, K. Sertel, J. L. Volakis, ElectroScience Laboratory, Columbus, OH, United States

A fully overlapping domain decomposition method (DDM) is proposed for finite element modeling of small features within large domains. The approach decouples the fine mesh associated with antenna details from that of the background domain. This allows for unstructured meshing, providing great flexibility in designing in situ antennas. Another advantage of this algorithm is its faster convergence as compared to traditional non-overlapping domain decomposition methods of the same order. This is due to the smaller iteration matrix eigenspectrum. In this paper, the accuracy of the fully overlapping domain decomposition method is presented with h-refinement analysis.

10:00         B03.6  RECENT ADVANCES IN THE INCREMENTAL THEORY OF DIFFRACTION FOR COMPLEX SOURCE POINT ILLUMINATION

A. Toccafondi, Universit di Siena, Siena, Italy;  S. M. Canta, D. Erricolo, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA  

We discuss some recent advances in the incremental formulation for the field diffracted by edges in perfect electric conductor (PEC) objects illuminated by a CSP expansion, with application to the analysis of large reflectors. A significant augmentation of the CSP PO estimate is achieved by including along the structure's edges both a line integration of an incremental fringe field and an incremental double-diffraction field. The addition of these incremental field terms provides the correct estimation of the radiated field.

10:20         B03.7  HYBRID METHODS BASED ON GENERALIZED SCATTERING MATRICES

E. Martini, C. Della Giovampaola, A. Toccafondi, S. Maci, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

A general hybrid technique based on generalized scattering matrices is presented. The analysis domain is decomposed into separate subdomains, which are independently studied and characterized by a generalized scattering matrix, where ports are associated with a set of wave objects. The interactions among subdomains are described by proper subdomain connections. Two particular implementations are illustrated, where wave objects are complex point source beams (CPS) and spherical waves, respectively. The first choice leads to an efficient numerical procedure due to the angular selectivity of the CPS beams, the second one has the advantage of direct interfaceability with spherical near-field measurements

10:40         B03.8  NUMERICAL COMPUTATION OF CORNER DIFFRACTION COEFFICIENTS FOR A PLANE ANGULAR SECTOR

A. K. Ozturk, ASELSAN Inc., Ankara, Turkey;  R. Paknys, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada  

Numerical diffraction coefficients are derived for vertex-diffracted currents on a semi-infinite plane angular sector. The currents are defined as the difference between the exact and PTD currents. The difference current is formulated as a wave traveling away from the vertex with unknown amplitude and decay factors. The unknown factors are calculated by using least squares fit. The discontinuities of the current density along the shadow boundaries are removed by the vertex-diffracted currents. It is also demonstrated that vertex-diffracted currents provide a remarkable improvement in the accuracy of the RCS pattern in the low level regions.

11:00         B03.9  LAST PHD SUPERVISED BY PROFESSOR KOUYOUMJIAN: EXTENDED UTD BY DR. BUYUKDURA

A. Altintas, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

While he is a Professor Emeritus at Ohio State, Professor Kouyoumjian supervised a thesis work by Merih Buyukdura. They first derived a dyadic Greens function for a PEC wedge using spherical wave functions and employed asymptotic approximation. They also derived the extended UTD in which higher order terms in the diffraction matrix are predicted. The thesis was defended in 1984. In this presentation, a brief discussion of edge waves as derived from the asymptotic expansion of dyadic Greens function in terms of spherical functions will be made and afterwards the derivation of extended UTD diffraction coefficients will be given.

11:20         B03.10  EXACT RADIATION BY A LINE SOURCE LOCATED INSIDE A CONFOCAL ELLIPTIC LAYER OF DNG METAMATERIAL

P. L. E. Uslenghi1, O. Akgol1, V. G. Daniele2, D. Erricolo1;  1University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; 2Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy

The two-dimensional problem of radiation from a line source encased inside an elliptic-cylinder confocal sheath of DNG metamaterial is solved exactly by separation of variables, utilizing series expansions of Mathieu functions. The radiation pattern is studied as a function of frequency, location of the line source along the major axis of the elliptical cavity, and thickness of the confocal sheath. A comparison of the exact solution with the geometrical optics solution of the problem is performed.

11:40         B03.11  A STOCHASTIC EXTENSION OF THE UNIFORM THEORY OF DIFFRACTION ACCOUNTING FOR GEOMETRICAL UNCERTAINTY OR SURFACE AND EDGE ROUGHNESS

F. Puggelli, G. Carluccio, G. Minatti, M. Albani, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

We present a stochastic extension of the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) which is capable to account for some uncertainty in the objects position or geometry, including roughness of surfaces or edges. Namely, we derive a solution for the electromagnetic field scattered by a perfectly conducting wedge whose faces are described as a statistical perturbation of a standard flat wedge. We give a uniform closed form expressions for the evaluation of the main statistical moments of the total electric field. The proposed statistical UTD formulation is suitable for engineering applications which involve UTD ray based codes.

12:00          End of the Session

CB – Antenna Channel Interactions for Future Wireless Communications

Session Chairs: Buon Kiong Lau, Koichi Ogawa

Session     CB

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-10:20

Room        Dolmabahçe A

08:00         CB.1  DESIGN OF WIDE ANGLE REFLECTION REFLECTARRAY USING MULTI-LAYER MUSHROOM STRUCTURE TO IMPROVE PROPAGATION

T. Maruyama, K. Furuno, Y. Oda, J. Shen, N. Tran, H. Kayama, NTT DOCOMO, INC., Kanagawa, Japan

This paper proposes a multi-layer mushroom reflectarray to achieve a wide angle of reflection (AOR) reflectarray at a super high frequency that can be used to improve the Multiple-In-Multiple-Out capacity in a line-of-sight environment. The paper also presents a detailed design chart to satisfy the desired AOR by applying LC resonant circuit theory. A 70 degree-AOR reflectarray at 11 GHz is designed and the proposed reflectarray exhibits good performance based on Finite Element Method calculations.

08:20         CB.2  PRACTICAL MULTI-ANTENNA TERMINALS IN LTE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE SIMULATIONS

F. Athley, L. Manholm, J. Friden, A. Stjernman, Ericsson AB, Gothenburg, Sweden

In cellular radio network simulations the modeling of terminal antennas is often extremely simplified. In this paper the impact of using realistic terminal antennas in LTE system simulations is investigated. Simulation results using measured radiation patterns of a number of typical multi-antenna terminals are compared with results using an ideal antenna model. The results show that the impact is weak in a scenario with high intercell interference while a substantial performance degradation can be observed in a scenario with low interference. An analysis of relations between antenna properties and system performance is also presented.

08:40         CB.3  EFFECTS OF HANDS ON THE 4-BRANCH MRC DIVERSITY GAIN FOR TERRESTRIAL DIGITAL BROADCASTING PORTABLE TV

K. Ogawa, K. Honda, Toyama University, Toyama, Japan

This paper studies on effects of hands on the diversity gain for a 4-branch MRC implemented in terrestrial digital broadcasting TV. Firstly, using a four-element dipole array, the relationship between decrease in the diversity gain and reduction of the receive power, and decrease in the diversity gain and the number of branches to be reduced received power, was investigated. Then, a simple method of predicting the diversity gain under the power imbalance condition is given. Finally, the proposed method is confirmed by the analysis using a model of a portable digital broadcasting TV set held with both hands.

09:00         CB.4  ANGLE AND POLARIZATION DIVERSITY IN COMPACT DUAL-ANTENNA TERMINALS WITH CHASSIS EXCITATION

H. Li1,2, B. K. Lau1, S. He2;  1Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

For multiple antennas on a compact terminal chassis, chassis current excitation can severely increase mutual coupling between the antennas. This is because the same characteristic mode of the chassis may be strongly excited by more than one antenna. Here, we propose to use one antenna that exploits chassis excitation and introduce a second antenna that minimizes chassis excitation. In this way, angle and polarization diversity can be realized. The concept is illustrated and verified through the design of a practical dual-antenna prototype at 920 MHz, which achieves an isolation of over 30 dB and total efficiencies of above 80%.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         CB.5  MULTI-ANTENNA DECOUPLING TECHNIQUE EXPLOITING MISO CHANNEL ON NEIGHBORING ANTENNAS

N. Honma1, K. Shishido1, K. Nishimori2, Y. Tsunekawa1;  1Iwate University, Morioka, Japan; 2Niigata University, Niigata, Japan

In this paper, a novel decoupling technique suitable for a compact array antenna is proposed. In this technique, an orthogonal excitation weight in MISO channel between 2x1 antennas are utilized. The simulation results demonstrate the excellent isolation and matching characteristics can be obtained when the proposed decoupling technique is applied to a compact three inverted-F array. Also, the proposed technique offers high radiation efficiency over the broad bandwidth.

10:00         CB.6  DESIGN OF COMPACT SINGLE-SECTION DIRECTIONAL COUPLER FOR BUTLER MATRIX BEAM-FORMING MIMO

N. Seman, D. N. Abang Zaidel, S. K. Abdul Rahim, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

This paper demonstrates a new design of 3-dB coupler operating between 3.1 GHz and 10.6 GHz. Together with UWB phase shifter, this coupler is claimed to be one of the key factors in designing a Butler Matrix for a beamforming network. The arrangement between beamforming and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) can broaden the coverage and capacity of users for wireless communication system. The proposed coupler design was accomplished in multilayer microstrip-slot technology by employing broadside coupling technique which offers a very tight coupling of 3 dB over the designated frequency band.

10:20          End of the Session

D03 – Lasers

Session Chairs: Alphan Sennaroglu, U. Morgner

Session     D03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Dolmabahçe B

08:00         D03.1  GENERATION OF FEW-OPTICAL-CYCLE PULSES TUNABLE FROM THE NEAR TO THE FAR IR BY OPTICAL PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS

D. Brida1,2, C. Manzoni1, R. Huber2, A. Leitenstorfer2, G. Cerullo1;  1Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy; 2University ok Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany

We exploit different optical parametric amplification schemes to generate ultra-broadband pulses with J-level energy broadly tunable from the near to the far-IR spectral region. In all cases we approach the single optical cycle limit with suitable compression techniques. Such pulses enable ultrafast spectroscopy on a variety of systems with unprecedented temporal resolution.

08:20         D03.2  NONLINEARITY ENGINEERING OF MODE-LOCKED FIBER LASERS: SIMILARITON AND SOLITON- SIMILARITON LASERS

F. O. Ilday, B. Oktem, C. Ulgudur, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

Fiber lasers are attractive with their simplicity, high powers and low cost. However, propagation of short pulses in optical fiber leads to nonlinear effects, which limit the technical performance. These effects drive rich dynamics, which is interesting from a fundamental perspective. The nonlinear waves community has unraveled the fascinating world of solitons and similaritons through experiments in fibers. This paper overviews the recent development of the soliton-similariton laser. The original similariton laser was the first to work with nonlinear effects, rather than minimizing or compensating them. In the soliton-similariton laser, the propagation is strongly nonlinear everywhere.

08:40         D03.3  FEMTOSECOND SOURCES FOR OPTICAL ARBITRARY WAVEFORM GENERATION

E. P. Ippen, D. Chao, A. Benedick, M. Y.-L. Sander, J. L. Morse, G. Chang, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kaertner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

Advances in high repetition-rate femtosecond laser technology for optical arbitrary waveform generation will be described. Combs spanning two octaves, from 500nm to 2mm, based on GHz modelocked Ti:sapphire and erbium-fiber lasers, have been carrier-envelope stabilized and frequency referenced.

09:00         D03.4  RECENT PROGRESS IN CARBON NANOTUBE SATURABLE ABSORBERS FOR ULTRAFAST BULK SOLID-STATE LASERS

F. Rotermund, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea, South Korea

Carbon nanotubes are one of the most investigated nanomaterials due to their unique electric and optical properties. In recent years, the nonlinear optical characteristics were intensively investigated not only for electronic, but also for photonic applications. In this work, recent progress in novel saturable absorbers based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) applicable for passive mode-locking of ultrafast bulk solid-state lasers is reviewed. Important linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of SWCNT saturable absorbers and their application as ultrafast mode-locking devices for different bulk lasers in the spectral range between 800 and 2000 nm will be shown.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         D03.5  ASYNCHRONOUS OPTICAL SAMPLING WITH GHZ REPETITION RATE FEMTOSECOND LASERS FOR HIGH PRECISION TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY

T. Dekorsy, G. Klatt, R. Gebs, C. Janke, A. Barteks, University Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany

We report a terahertz time-domain spectrometer with 6THz spectral coverage and 1GHz resolution based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS). ASOPS employs two femtosecond lasers with 1GHz repetition rate which are stabilized to a repetition rate off-set frequency of 2kHz. The time delay between pump pulses exciting a photoconductive THz emitter and probe pulses is scanned without a mechanical delay stage. The timing jitter between pump and probe pulses is reduced to 40fs over the full scan range. We demonstrate the capabilities of ASOPS for gas spectroscopy and the characterization of frequency selective surfaces.

10:00         D03.6  ULTRASHORT PULSE AMPLIFICATION IN FIBERS: CHALLENGES, STATUS AND POTENTIAL

J. Limpert, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany

The recent demonstration of rare-earth-doped fiber lasers with a continuous-wave output power approaching the 10 kW-level with diffraction-limited beam quality has proven that fiber lasers constitute a power-scalable solid-state laser concept. To generate intense pulses from a fiber several fundamental limitations have to be overcome. Nevertheless, novel experimental strategies and fiber designs offer an enormous potential towards ultrafast laser systems with high average powers (>kW) and high peak power (>GW). The challenges, achievements and perspectives of ultrashort pulse generation and amplification in fibers will be reviewed.

10:20         D03.7  FEMTOSECOND NON-DIFFRACTING BESSEL BEAMS AND CONTROLLED NANOSCALE ABLATION

J. M. Dudley, FEMTO-ST, Besancon, France

We review our recent results applying the stable nonlinear propagation of nondiffracting Bessel beams to femtosecond laser ablation in dielectric materials. We describe our spatial light modulator setup that allows for flexible and reconfigurable beam profile synthesis, we interpret the physics in terms of the formation of a steady plasma channel, and we present results of both multishot and single shot machining.

10:40         D03.8  TRIPLE PHOTONS : FROM NONLINEAR GENERATION TO QUANTUM CORRELATIONS

B. Boulanger1, A. Dot1, K. Bencheikh2, A. Levenson2, P. Segonds1, C. Felix1;  1CNRS Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France; 2CNRS, Marcoussis, France

We implemented an experiment using a KTP crystal pumped at 532 nm that allowed the first generation of triple photons. It corresponds to the creation of three correlated photons from the splitting of a single photon from a pure third order down conversion parametric process. We gave prominence to the experimental and theoretical demonstrations of quantum correlations of these triple photons. We considered several protocols, including the recombination of the three photons and the three possible recombinations by pairs. These original results open the way to new fundamental quantum optics studies that should have applications in quantum information and cryptography.

11:00         D03.9  OPTICAL PHENOMENA AND DYNAMICS IN ORGANIC MICROCAVITY LASER

O. Shapira, S.-L. Chua, B. Zhen, M. Soljacic, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

Formalism for the interaction of organic molecules with a microstructure cavity is presented. We study the effect of emission and absorption properties of organic molecules in a micro-structured cavity on lasing condition. The formalism is based on coupled-mode theory and provides analytical expression for steady state operation. This study suggests routes to obtain an ultra-low threshold organic laser that can ultimately pave the way to development of an electro-luminescent solid-state organic laser device.

11:20         D03.10  A TABLETOP MID-IR LIGHT SOURCE FOR THE GENERATION OF SUB-1-NM COHERENT ULTRAFAST X-RAYS

S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuska, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria;  T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA  

We demonstrate a compact 20-Hz-repetition-rate mid-IR OPCPA system operating at the central wavelength of 3900 nm with an FWHM bandwidth of 600 nm and delivering 8-mJ pulses that are compressed to 83 fs (< 7 optical cycles). Because of the long optical period (~13 fs) and a high peak power, the system opens a range of unprecedented opportunities for tabletop ultrafast science and is particularly attractive as a driver for a highly efficient generation of ultrafast coherent X ray continua for bio-molecular and element-specific imaging. In a preliminary experiment, we extend the spectral region of a fully phase-matched higher order harmonic generation to 1.6 keV which provides a significant photon flux inside and beyond the X-ray water window, including the fingerprint region of magnetic Ledges. This is the most extreme documented nonlinear frequency conversion corresponding to the harmonic order of >5000 and the broadest continuum reported to date for any laser source.

11:40         D03.11  CARBON NANOTUBES BASED PHOTONICS: TOWARDS THE LASER

L. Vivien, N. Izard, E. Gaufrs, X. Le Roux, A. Beck, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, Institut of fundamental electronics - Univ Paris Sud, Orsay, France

Semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) have generated a growing interest for several years due to their extraordinary optical properties. A strong enhancement of the photoluminescence properties has been obtained thanks to the extraction of s-SWNTs. These advances led to the first demonstration of optical gain in carbon nanotubes and are a precursor to obtain nanotube-based laser. Finally, we will present the integration of s-SWNT in silicon photonic structures, and experimentally demonstrate light emission in silicon waveguides. These results constitute a significant milestone towards the development of carbon nanotube based laser sources in silicon.

12:00          End of the Session

E03 – High Power and Intentional EMI (in memory of Carl E. Baum)

Session Chairs: Frank Sabath, Karl Langenberg, William Radasky

Session     E03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Galata

08:00         E03.1  REMEMBERING CARL E. BAUM - TRIBUTE TO A DISTINGUISHED SCIENTIST

F. Sabath, Federal Ministry of Defence, Bonn, Germany;  W. D. Prather, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, USA;  D. V. Giri, Pro-Tech, Alamo, CA, USA  

This contribution is a tribute to a completed career that has spanned more than four decades. Dr. Carl E. Baum was a remarkably creative engineer who has introduced innumerable new concepts in mathematics, electromagnetic theory, and system design, many of which remain the standards of excellence today. From his earliest designs in electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensors and simulators to the latest developments in high-power microwave and ultra- wideband antenna and system design, his research has remained ever on the forefront of technology.

08:20         E03.2  ELECTROMAGNETIC DETECTION IN NATURAL AND MAN-MADE DISASTERS

I. Kohlberg, Kohlberg Associates, Reston, VA, United States;  S. A. von Laven, Scientic, Inc., Huntsville, AL, United States;  R. W. McMillan, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Huntsville, AL, United States  

Previously the authors developed a theory for detecting objects through a complex dielectric interface using the mathematical structure of the dyadic Green's function to improve upon existing approximations for predicting the electromagnetic fields generated by and onto canonical structures such as loops and dipoles. By restructuring the dyadic Green's function formalism we have derived simple expressions for scattering objects embedded in the same complex dielectric as the sensor, as well as objects at the dielectric interface and those outside the sensor dielectric region. Examples are given for detection over a conducting surface and for an embedded object.

08:40         E03.3  ENERGY PATTERNS OF THE PROTOTYPE IMPULSE-RADIATING ANTENNA

D. V. Giri, Pro-Tech, Alamo, CA, United States;  F. M. Tesche, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, United States  

In this paper we consider a reflector-type of an Impulse Radiating Antenna (IRA) as an example of a hyperband antenna. The radiation pattern of an IRA is a strong function of frequency. The lower frequencies of the input pulse have lower gain and large beam-widths, while the higher frequencies have a higher gain and smaller beam-widths. We describe an energy pattern of the IRA, as a simple and unique descriptor of the transient antenna.

09:00         E03.4  DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A COAXIAL EXPONENTIAL TRANSMISSION LINE FOR A HALF IMPULSE RADIATING ANTENNA

F. Vega1,2, N. Mora1, F. Rachidi1, N. Pea2, F. Roman3;  1Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland; 2Los Andes University, Bogota, DC, Colombia; 3National University, Bogota, DC, Colombia

This paper describes the simulation and design of a coaxial exponential matching transmission line for the connection of a 50-Ohm generator to a Half Impulse Radiating Antenna (HIRA) having an input impedance Za= 100 Ohm. The frequency band of adaptation is defined between 50 MHz and 1 GHz. The principles of design and the simulation of the performance of the adaptor in time and frequency domain are presented and discussed.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         E03.5  GENERATION AND RADIATION OF HIGH-POWER MESOBAND WAVEFORMS USING QUARTER-WAVE SWITCHED OSCILLATORS

J. S. Tyo, M. Armanious, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States;  M. C. Skipper, M. D. Abdalla, ASR Corporation, Albuquerque, NM, USA  

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Carl Baum proposed the idea of generating moderate bandwidth electromagnetic waveforms using quarter-wave switched oscillators. After his initial conceptual proposition, it took several years to realize these systems, and many lessons were learned along the way. This article captures the details of the modeling and design methodologies that we have developed over the years in order to obtain oscillators with specific characteristics. The design methodology consists of a delicate balance among the pulsed power, electrodynamic, and mechanical considerations, each of which often work against each other in practice.

10:00         E03.6  A SWITCHED OSCILLATOR AS AN ANTENNA FOR HIGH POWER THZ GENERATION

P. Kumar, C. E. Baum, C. G. Christodoulou, C. T. Abdallah, E. Schamiloglu, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States;  D. G. Brown, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, United States;  K. F. McDonald, Sci-Eng Solutions LLC, Columbia, MO, United States  

This paper presents an approach to high power THz generation that uses a Switched Oscillator (SwO) as a photoconductively-switched antenna. A simplified model is used to demonstrate the SwO as an effective THz radiator. Numerical simulations are used to optimize various parameters of interest with the primary objective of maximizing the radiated energy and minimizing lossess. The radiation Q and resonant frequency are obtained as function of each parameter.

10:20         E03.7  USING THE HALF FOURIER TRANSFORM FOR SEM ANALYSIS OF BOTH EARLY AND LATE TIME RESPONSES IN THE PRESENCE OF NOISE

T. Sarkar, Syracuse University, Syracuse, United States;  M. Salazar, University of Carlos III, Madrid, Spain  

A technique for estimating the SEM parameters of damped sinusoids utilizing both early and late time transient scattering data contaminated by noise is described using the Half Fourier Transform (HFT). The importance of this novel methodology is how to simultaneously exploit both early time and late time data as for a practical system it is difficult to separate them and still be able to identify the late time poles along with the early time specular type of returns.

10:40         E03.8  STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF SHIELDING PROBLEMS USING MULTIPOLE ANALYSIS

K. Koerber, L. Klinkenbusch, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany

The paper describes the influence of small statistical variations in the physical parameters on the shielding behavior of an enclosure. The varying parameters are given in terms of the first few statistical moments of their distributions. From these the amplitudes of a spherical-multipole expansion are derived analytically. These multipole amplitudes contain the statistical properties of the electromagnetic field valid not only in a single point but in a spherical region around the center of the expansion inside of a shield. Two first examples demonstrate the validity of the approach.

11:00         E03.9  WHAT CAN BE LEARNED FROM DOCUMENTED INTENTIONAL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (IEMI) ATTACKS?

F. Sabath, Federal Ministry of Defence, Bonn, Germany

The existing threat by criminal (intentional) use of electromagnetic tools is investigated. Reported Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) attacks and similar incidents will be analyzed and discussed in regard to aspects like motivation and technical skills of the culprits, characteristics of the generated IEMI environment as well as effects on the target systems. Concluding common characteristics will lead to a discussion of the technological challenge of recognition and identification of an IEMI attack as well as backtracking of observed malfunction and destructions to an external IEMI environment.

11:20         E03.10  COMBINATION OF THE FAILURE PROBABILITY WITH A RANDOM ANGLE OF INCIDENCE OF THE RADIATED INTERFERENCE

E. Genender, A. Kreth, D. Zamow, H. Garbe, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover, Germany;  S. Potthast, Bundeswehr Research Institute for Protective Technologies and NBC-Protection, Munster, Germany  

Electronic devices exposed to high level electromagnetic interference will fail with a certain probability. Knowing this failure probability is essential when a system is being designed to withstand intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). In previous investigations failure probability was analyzed for the case where a device was illuminated from one direction only. If the device is illuminated from other directions, then the failure probability will change. In this contribution it is discussed how the failure probability determined for one direction can be extended in order to include a random angle of incidence of the interference.

11:40         E03.11  AUTOMATED AND ADAPTIVE RF EFFECTS TESTING

E. G. Farr, L. H. Bowen, W. S. Bigelow, Farr Fields, LC, Albuquerque, NM, United States;  R. L. Gardner, Consultant, Alexandria, VA, Unites States;  P. Finlay, Air Force Research Laboratory/RDHA, Kirtland AFB, NM, United States  

Testing electronics for vulnerability to radio frequency (RF) radiation is time-consuming, due to the large number of source variables of interest, including center frequency, pulse width, pulse repetition frequency, number of pulses, and bandwidth. One must intelligently select the source parameters most likely to expose the greatest vulnerability. We do so here using standard techniques from minimization theory. Within a space of two or more variables, we search for the combination that upsets the system at the lowest power or field level. We investigated the vulnerability of media converters to pulsed RF fields, by pinging a remote computer.

12:00          End of the Session

F03 – Tropospheric Modeling for Radiowave Propagation and Radar Remote Sensing

Session Chairs: Robert Watson, Marlene Pontes

Session     F03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Haliç

08:00         F03.1  COMPARISON OF RADAR REFLECTIVITY CALCULATIONS TO SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS ACROSS THE MELTING LAYER OF PRECIPITATION

K. Pipis1, M. P. Ioannidou2, D. P. Chrissoulidis1;  1Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Calculations of the radar reflectivity factor across the melting layer of precipitation, based on the eccentric spheres model for melting ice particles, successfully reproduce measured data provided by the Precipitation Radar (PR) of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. Our model follows TRMM measurements best if the raindrops beneath the melting layer are sized according to the Marshall-Palmer distribution and the rain rate is low. The Gamma size distribution is more appropriate for high rain rates. The comparisons bring to the light cases of incorrect information about the height and width of the melting layer in TRMM data.

08:20         F03.2  FADE DURATION AND FADE SLOPE STATISTICS DERIVED FROM LONG-TERM ANIK-F2 SATELLITE BEACON MEASUREMENTS IN OTTAWA-CANADA

C. Amaya, T. Nguyen, Communications Research Centre Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Fade duration and fade slope provide essential information to design fade mitigation techniques. Statistics for 2006-2009 from the 20-GHz beacon of Telesats Anik F2 satellite are presented. The impact of data filtering is discussed. Four fade duration models are tested using Anik F2 distributions. Slope PDFs show symmetry between positive and negative values; a clear dependence on fade level is verified. General agreement was observed between measured CDFs and the ITU-R model. Finally, the comparison of distributions from the 20- and 30-GHz beacons of NASA ACTS satellite confirms the frequency-independent behaviour of fade slope.

08:40         F03.3  STUDIES ON RAIN STRUCTURE BASED ON GROUND BASED DROPSIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RAIN ATTENUATION MEASUREMENTS OVER AN EARTH SPACE PATH

A. Bhattacharya, A. Maitra, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

The drop size distribution (DSD) of rain in tropical region shows the characteristic features of different types of rain, namely, stratiform, transitional and convective. This is also indicated in behaviors of the rain decay parameter, obtained from the measurements of rain rate and attenuation over an earth-space path. The DSD parameters and rain decay parameter give similar clustering indicating the feature of convective and stratiform rain. To predict rain attenuation from rain rate, the decay parameter is modeled for different rain rate regions that provides a good matching between the predicted and measured values.

09:00         F03.4  THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR SINGLE TREE TRUNK RE-RADIATION PATTERN FOR DRET MODEL APPLICATIONS

N. R. C. Leonor, D. Ferreira, Institute of Telecommunications, Leiria, Portugal;  R. F. S. Caldeirinha, T. Fernandes, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Leiria, Portugal  

This paper presents the work carried out in an effort of modelling the scattering and absorption effects of single tree trunks with application to the discrete Radiative Energy Transfer (dRET) based model applications. The assessment of the proposed empirical model was performed against measurements of both metallic and dielectric cylinders, mimicking tree trunks, at several micro- and millimetre wave frequencies, i.e. 9.4, 18.8 and 37.6 GHz. These were carried out in a controlled environment, i.e. an anechoic chamber, so that frequency dependent effects could be evaluated.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         F03.5  POLARIMETRIC SCATTERING AND RADAR ECHOES FROM INHOMOGENEOUS SCATTER MEDIA WITH ROUGH INTERFACES

Y.-Q. Jin, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

A theoretical model of stratified lunar regolith media with scatterers and rough interfaces for numerical simulation of polarimetric radar pulse echoes are developed. The lunar layer consists of the low lossy regolith layer with randomly rough top and bottom interfaces, and a layer of random stone-scatterers (spatially oriented oblate spheroids are assumed) is embedded and overlays the underlying rock media. The time domain Mueller matrix solution derived from vector radiative transfer formulations contains seven scattering mechanisms of the stratified media: surface scattering from the rough top and bottom interfaces, volumetric scattering from random stone scatterers, and their multi-interactions.

10:00         F03.6  ON THE USEFULNESS OF SELECTED RADIO WAVES PROPAGATION MODELS FOR DESIGNING MOBILE WIRELESS SYSTEMS IN CONTAINER TERMINAL ENVIRONMENT

S. J. Ambroziak, R. J. Katulski, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland

Modelling of basic transmission loss in container terminal is difficult, so it is important to determine which propagation model is the most usefulness for it. At the outset of the paper the applied research methodology have been presented. Next, the selected propagation models have been shortly characterized. These models are: ITU-R P.1411-4, COST231 Walfisch-Ikegami and empirical model for fixed radio networks in the container terminal. The main part of the paper presents results of verification, based on mean error and standard error of estimate. Future research aimed at developing new propagation model have been shortly presented.

10:20         F03.7  PREDICTION OF DIFFRACTION EFFECTS DUE TO IRREGULAR TERRAIN ON RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN THE VHF AND UHF BANDS

E. Costa, M. A. N. da Silva, CETUC PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil;  M. Liniger, LiniKomm GmbH, Bern, Switzerland  

Many models have been proposed to represent diffraction effects on the propagation of radio waves over irregular terrain in the VHF and UHF bands. Predictions from these models have been compared with results from field-strength measurements available in extensive databases that also incorporate the technical parameters of thousands of VHF and UHF links. Possible sources of the still high values of the standard deviations of errors between predictions and measurements will be identified and discussed, with particular attention to uncertainties on digital elevation models and on the effective Earths radius, as well as to effects from lateral propagation.

10:40         F03.8  RADIO WAVE DIFFRACTION BY TERRAIN IRREGULARITIES

M. S. Assis, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil

This paper deals with the problem of diffraction by terrain irregularities. To avoid the difficulties associated to the general solution, which is given by an integral equation, simplified methods for the evaluation of radio wave attenuation are available. However, the accuracy of these methods depends on restrictions imposed by frequency, link parameters (path distance and antenna heights) and terrain profile. In this paper emphasis is given to the work that is being carried out in the Study Group 3 (Radiowave Propagation) of ITU-R (Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union).

11:00         F03.9  COMPUTING THE INFLUENCE OF WIND TURBINES ON RF SYSTEMS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT TERRAIN.

E. H. Van Lil, J.-W. De Bleser, A. R. Van de Capelle, K.U.Leuven, Heverlee, Brabant, Belgium

Previous studies have focused on the influence of moving objects such as wind turbines on aeronautical and maritime radars, usually working in the L/S band and in the X-band respectively. Here, we will not only take into account terrain properties, but also compute systems very close to each other and at lower frequencies, where UTD is no longer valid. In addition, particular attention will be paid to the computations of systems that are in the near-field of the antenna.

11:20         F03.10  THE JOINT INVERSE FILTERING AND PARAMETRIC IDENTIFICATION FOR COMPLEX RADAR IMAGE

M. Konovalyuk, Y. Kuznetsov, A. Baev, Moscow Aviation Institute (State Technical University), Moscow, Russian Federation

The paper suggests combining the inverse filtering and the parametric identification in the post-processing sequence of the complex radar image. The image can be modeled assuming the superposition of the identical partial responses from the effective target point-scatterers. Their positions correspond to the geometrical profile of target in the image coordinate plane. The proposed algorithm of radar image post-processing consists of the parametric and the non-parametric procedures which are used to improve the image resolution and to identify geometrical form of the target. The presented simulated results illustrate the main steps of radar image post-processing.

11:40         F03.11  COMPARISON OF HYDROMETEOR ATTENUATION ON PARALLEL TERRESTRIAL PATHS AT 58 GHZ AND 93 GHZ

V. Kvicera, M. Grabner, Czech Metrology Institute, Praha, Czech Republic;  O. Fiser, Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Praha, Czech Republic  

The results of 3-year experimental research of attenuation due to hydrometeors at 58 GHz and 93 GHz parallel terrestrial paths are given. The obtained cumulative distributions of attenuation due to all the hydrometeors combined, monthly cumulative distributions of attenuation due to all the hydrometeors combined, cumulative distributions of attenuation due to the individual hydrometeors separately, and cumulative distributions of rain intensities are given. The influence of individual hydrometeors on attenuation is analysed. The obtained cumulative distribution of attenuation due to rain only is compared with the calculated one in accordance with the relevant ITU-R recommendations.

12:00          End of the Session

G03 - Recent Developments in and Coordinated Studies with Incoherent Scatter Radars

Session Chairs: Anja Strømme, Ian McCrea, Ingemar Haggstrom

Session     G03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Topkapi A

08:00         G03.1  GLOBAL SCALE IONOSPHERIC MONITORING - FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

A. P. van Eyken, E. Sanchez, SRI International, Menlo Park, United States;  E. Turunen, EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden;  I. W. McCrea, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, United Kingdom  

Incoherent scatter radars have developed considerably in recent years with the deployment of multiple new systems (Poker Flat, Alaska, Resolute Bay, Canada, and in development in China, Argentina, Antarctica, and Scandinavia, as well as a second system at Resolute Bay) and operational changes to support continuous and remote measurements. We will discuss plans to add further observational sites, built around phased array incoherent scatter radars, to cover a complete geomagnetic meridian; plans to further integrate the routine operation of many radars around the globe; and the potential for hardware collaboration for future incoherent scatter radar systems.

08:20         G03.2  COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HEATING AND ION UPFLOW AT SONDRE STROMFJORD AND EISCAT

A. Stromme, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, United States of America;  I. W. McCrea, STFC Rutherford Apppleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom  

Although the Sondrestrom radar is at a lower geographic latitude than any of EISCATs mainland radars, its geomagnetic latitude and dip angle are comparable to those of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. In this study, we compare the statistics of ion upflows observed at Sondrestromfjord with those obtained at EISCAT (Tromso and Svalbard) during comparable periods. We will also look at the underlying variations in ion and electron temperature which play a role in driving these outflow events, and discuss the extent to which the relationship between geomagnetic and geographic latitude might contribute to the differences observed.

08:40         G03.3  POLAR CAP ELECTRIC FIELD OBSERVATIONS FROM THE RESOLUTE BAY INCOHERENT SCATTER RADAR

H. Bahcivan, M. J. Nicolls, C. J. Heinselman, SRI International, Menlo Park, United States

The new incoherent scatter radar in Resolute Bay (RISR) is providing first-time observations of fine-scale spatial and temporal electric potential structures in the polar cap ionosphere. The sub-minute resolution ionospheric convection response can be intimately tied to solar wind magnetic pulses measured by the ACE and WIND spacecraft. Furthermore, we present estimates of electric potential maps (over ~ 500x500 km latitudinal and longitudinal extent) constructed using simultaneous multi-beam position line-of-sight velocity measurements and new inversion techniques. The electric field divergence averaged over the mapped region shows diurnal variation consistent with a two-cell convection pattern.

09:00         G03.4  DETERMINATION OF PRECIPITATING ELECTRON FLUXES FROM INVERSION OF COORDINATED ALIS/EISCAT OBSERVATIONS.

H. Lamy, C. Simon, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium;  B. Gustavsson, University of Southampton, Hampshire, UK;  T. Sergienko, I. Sandahl, U. Brandstrom, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden  

In March 2008, discrete stable auroral arcs were investigated during a coordinated observational campaign between the European Incoherent Scatter Radar (EISCAT) and the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS). The two sets of data are inverted to retrieve fluxes of precipitating electrons. Both results are matching in energy and shape with a typical average precipitation energy of a few keV. Finally, by using the average energy spectrum of electrons deduced from ALIS data as input for the TRANS4 kinetic/fluid electron transport 1D model, computed auroral emissions are compared to ALIS observations and electron density profiles are compared to EISCAT profiles.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         G03.5  EISCAT_3D: EUROPES NEXT-GENERATION RADAR FOR STUDIES OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND GEOSPACE

I. W. McCrea, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

EISCAT is leading a Preparatory Phase project for EISCAT_3D, a new multistatic phased array system, to replace its radars in Scandinavia. EISCAT_3D will be the most advanced IS radar yet constructed, combining multiple beams, advanced imaging, flexible signal processing and greatly improved resolution and sensitivity. The Preparatory Phase will resolve the technical, financial, logistical and political issues to be clarified before construction. It began in October 2010 and continues until September 2014. We will review the objectives of the study, summarise its current status, look ahead to future challenges, and report on the supporting actions contributing to EISCAT_3D development.

10:00         G03.6  MULTISCALE SOFTWARE RADAR NETWORKS AND THE GEOSPACE ARRAY

F. D. Lind, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, United States

Ground based Incoherent Scatter Radar has provided a sustained record of observation and scientific discovery. However, these systems are limited by the ad-hoc and incremental nature of their creation, the diverse technologies used, and the costs associated with maintenance and operations. It is difficult to break free of these limitations and addressing them requires a paradigm change. We will discuss how multi-scale software radar arrays could result in a global array for observation of the Geospace environment. We will also highlight how the development of EISCAT 3D radar system is a major step in this direction.

10:20         G03.7  THE EISCAT_3D ARBITRARY WAVEFORM EXCITER AND POLYPHASE CONSTANT AMPLITUDE CODES FOR EISCAT VHF AND ESR D/E LAYER EXPERIMENTS

G. Wannberg, I. Wolf, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden;  W. Puccio, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden;  I. Häggström, A. Westman, EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden  

The AD9957 fast digital up-converter has been found to possess most of the qualities required to implement the beam-steering and arbitrary waveform capabilities of the EISCAT_3D radar system. An exciter system based on the AD9957 is now under construction. As an integral part of this programme, two constant-amplitude polyphase experiments with excellent D- and E-region properties have been developed. One of these will be tested on the existing EISCAT radars during the 2011 PMSE season. The AD9957, the exciter and the polyphase codes will be presented; results and conclusions from the test experiments will be reported.

10:40         G03.8  THE EFFECTS OF COULOMB COLLISIONS ON H+ AND HE+ PLASMAS FOR TOPSIDE INCOHERENT SCATTER RADAR APPLICATIONS AT JICAMARCA

M. A. Milla1, E. Kudeki2, J. L. Chau1;  1Jicamarca Radio Observatory, Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima, Peru; 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, US

To continue the work of Milla and Kudeki [2011] on Coulomb collisions, we have recently started the development of a multi-component collisional incoherent scatter spectrum model that considers O+, H+, and He+ plasmas as needed for topside perpendicular-to-B observations at Jicamarca. The spectrum model is being developed based on simulations of particle trajectories in magnetized plasmas where collision effects are modeled by friction and diffusive forces with expected values taken from the Fokker-Planck equation of Rosenbluth et al. [1957]. In this presentation, we will report on our advances on the development of this new spectrum model.

11:00         G03.9  EISCAT APERTURE SYNTHESIS IMAGING (EASI_3D) FOR THE EISCAT_3D PROJECT

C. La Hoz, V. Belyey, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway

Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR), code-named EASI_3D, is the technology adopted by the EISCAT_3D project to give imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions including sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range. This ability will open new research opportunities to map small structures associated with non-homogeneous, unstable processes such as aurora, summer and winter polar radar echoes (PMSE and PMWE), Natural Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs), structures excited by HF ionospheric heating, meteors, space debris, and others.

11:20         G03.10  THE D-REGION IONOSPHERE DURING THE SOLAR MINIMUM AS SEEN BY THE EISCAT SVALBARD CONTINUOUS 1-YEAR IPY RADAR EXPERIMENT

A. Kero1, C.-F. Enell1, E. Turunen2, I. Haggstrom2, P. T. Verronen3, S. Salmi3, T. Ulich1, L. Roininen1;  1Sodankyl Geophysical Observatory / University of Oulu, Sodankyl, Finland; 2EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden; 3Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland

The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) was operated in a continuous mode during the International Polar Year (IPY), starting on 1 March 2007 and ending on 29 February 2008. The radar experiment was dedicated to ensure good coverage also in the ionospheric lower E and D regions, in addition to covering the more standard experiment target, the ionospheric F peak, and reaching into the topside ionosphere. By using this unique continuous dataset gathered during the solar minimum, we show that anomalous variability of the quiet daytime electron density in the D region can be explained by the varying NO concentration.

11:40         G03.11  RADIO AURORA EXPLORER TO PROVIDE COHERENT SCATTER CAPABILITY FOR UHF INCOHERENT SCATTER RADARS

H. Bahcivan, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, United States;  J. Cutler, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States  

The Radio Aurora Explorer Cube-Sat mission is a ground-to-space bi-static radar experiment utilizing UHF incoherent scatter radars (PFISR, RISR, Millstone, ESR, and Arecibo) to measure plasma turbulence from mid-to-high latitudes in the altitude range 80-500 km. The experiment provides common-volume measurements of (1) ionospheric irregularities with high spatial/angular resolution and (2) quiescent plasma parameters using incoherently scattered signals. RAX I was launched in 11/2010 and conducted a successful radar experiment with PFISR; however, it is currently experiencing power issues. Meanwhile, RAX II is to be launched in 10/2011.

12:00          End of the Session

H03 – Wave-particle Interactions and Their Effects on Planetary Radiation Belts I

Session Chairs: Jacob Bortnik, Craig Rodger, Bruce Tsurutani, Richard Horne

Session     H03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Topkapi B

08:00         H03.1  MODELING PITCH ANGLE SCATTERING OF RADIATION BELT PARTICLES BY THE INJECTION OF LOW FREQUENCY WAVES WITH F-REGION HF-DRIVEN IONOSPHERIC CURRENTS

K. Papadopoulos1, B. Eliasson2, X. Shao1, A. S. Sharma1;  1University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States; 2Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany

Injection of EMIC and Alfven waves into Earths inner radiation belt to pitch-angle scatter energetic electrons and protons provides active means to study the physics of the inner radiation belt. We present a new concept of generating ionospheric currents in the ULF/ELF range with modulated F-region HF heating using ground-based transmitters even in the absence of electrojet currents that is applicable to the Arecibo ionospheric heater. A numerical model is used to simulate the generation and injection of Alfven waves by the Arecibo heater and their interaction with the trapped protons and suggest future experiments.

08:20         H03.2  ELECTROMAGNETIC ION CYCLOTRON WAVES AND GEOMAGNETIC STORMS: GOES AND CRRES OBSERVATIONS

B. J. Fraser, A. J. Halford, University of Newcastle, allaghan, NSW 2308, Australia

In situ observations in the magnetosphere were undertaken to further pursue the relationship between geomagnetic storms and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves using GOES and CRRES satellite data. Thirteen of 22 storms showed EMIC waves occurring during the main phase. With CRRES storms were divided into three phases: pre-onset, main, and recovery. The majority, 56%, of storm time EMIC waves were found to occur during the main phase, while 36% were observed in the recovery phase.

08:40         H03.3  ION HEATING BY FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND RING CURRENT-ELECTRON RADIATION BELT COUPLING

R. B. Horne, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK;  R. M. Thore, L. Chen, X. Tao, University of California, Los Angeles, Ca, USA;  V. K. Jordanova, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM, USA;  D. Pokhotelov, Finnish Meteorolgical Institute, Helsinki, Finland;  P. Robert, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France  

We present fast magnetosonic waves observed by CLUSTER and study their effects on the ion distribution and the excitation of EMIC waves. By modelling the narrow spectral features of the waves we show that ion energy diffusion is more than two orders of magnitude larger than pitch angle diffusion. The waves fill in the ion ring distribution and heat the ion tail creating a large anisotropy at high energies which may be unstable to EMIC waves. The waves can couple the ring current to the electron radiation belt directly via electron diffusion, and indirectly via excitation of EMIC waves.

09:00         H03.4  THE THEORY AND NUMERICAL MODELLING OF NON LINEAR WAVE PARTICLE INTERACTIONS IN OBLIQUE WHISTLERS

D. Nunn1,2, Y. Omura2;  1Southampton University,UK, Southampton, United Kingdom; 2Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

This work reports on a one dimensional fully nonselfconsistent relativistic code that computes nonlinear resonant electron trajectories in an obliquely propagating arbitrary VLF wavefield. By defining a generalised phase for the nth resonance the distribution function of resonant electrons is computed for any order n by backward trajectory integration and using Liouvilles theorem. Each resonance order n obeys the trapping equations. A detailed chorus wavefield model showed strong trapping with a phase space hole for n=1 resonance and a phase space hill for the n=0 resonance. One pass resonant particle energisation up to 0.4keV were found.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         H03.5  TRIGGERING PROCESS OF WHISTLER-MODE CHORUS EMISSIONS IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE

Y. Omura, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan;  D. Nunn, University of Southampton, Southampton, U.K.  

Chorus emissions are triggered from the linear cyclotron instability driven by temperature anisotropy of energetic electrons. They grow as an absolute nonlinear instability near the equator due to an electron hole in velocity space. The transition process from the linear growth to the nonlinear growth with a rising tone frequency is due to formation of a resonant current anti-parallel to the wave magnetic field. The rising-tone frequency introduces a phase shift to the electron hole, resulting in a resonant current anti-parallel to the wave electric field, which causes the nonlinear growth. Theory and simulations are presented.

10:00         H03.6  THEORY AND SIMULATIONS OF DISCRETE VLF EMISSIONS IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE

A. Demekhov, Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation

We consider the results of theoretical and numerical studies of the of generation discrete VLF emissions in the Earth's magnetosphere. The physics of cyclotron wave-particle interactions will be reviewed and current ideas on the mechanism forming the discrete spectrum of whistler-mode waves will be discussed. Two most important classes of the discrete emissions, i.e., triggered and chorus signals will be considered, and their common and specific features will be analyzed. We discuss the relationship between the model results and observations, and also possible application of similar mechanisms to the phenomena in the ion-cyclotron frequency range.

10:20         H03.7  PARTICLE-WAVE-PARTICLE INTERACTIONS INVOLVING WHISTLER-MODE WAVES IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE.

D. R. Shklyar, Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation

Search for and understanding of mechanisms for particle energization is a key problem in physics of the Earths radiation belts. A good deal of suggested mechanisms is related to resonant interactions between waves and energetic particle. In the plasmaspheric region of the magnetosphere, energy density variation of resonant particles is often much larger than the wave energy density. By examples of whistler-mode wave-electron interactions we emphasize that, in many cases, the energy increase (decrease) of resonant particles is related to energy transfer from (to) other group of resonant particles, while the wave basically mediates the energization process.

10:40         H03.8  CHORUS VARIATION DURING THE COMPRESSION OF MAGNETOSPHERE

H. Fu, J. Cao, Beihang University, Beijing, China;  F. Mozer, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA;  B. Yang, Peking University, Beijing, China  

Chorus is important in space science due to its role in generation of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts, which are hazardous to satellites and astronauts. Although chorus has been studied for several decades and many theories have been proposed, its generation and growth mechanisms are still not well understood. In this manuscript, we show an unexpected observation, based on measurements from the NASA THEMIS satellites, that chorus can be significantly amplified when an interplanetary shock that originates from Sun hits Earths magnetosphere. The shock-induced anisotropic distribution of energetic electrons leads to the growth of chorus.

11:00         H03.9  UNUSUAL OBSERVATION OF CHORUS AT L=2.6

B. Delport, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa;  A. B. Collier, Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, Hermanus, South Africa;  C. J. Rodger, University of Otago, Otago, New Zealand;  M. Clilverd, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England;  M. Parrot, LPCE, Orleans, France;  R. Friedel, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, USA;  J. Bortnik, University of California, Los Angeles, USA  

On the 4th August 2010, chorus was observed on Marion Island (L=2.6). A similar event was observed at Palmer Station, Antarctica (L=2.44) during the Halloween Storms of 2003. The spatial extent of the 2010 event is discussed and data from several systems, including DEMETER VLF, GPS particle and AARDVARK precipitation data are analysed. We investigate the location of the plasmapause with satellite data. Preliminary analysis of low resolution VLF data from other mid and high latitude stations show that a similar emission was observed at these sites, but at different times.

11:20         H03.10  DIFFUSION-ADVECTION MODELING OF WAVE-PARTICLE INTERACTIONS IN THE RADIATION BELTS

J. M. Albert, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, United States

Properly treating wave-particle interactions is crucial to modeling and predicting the behavior of radiation belt electrons. The usual quasi-linear theory alone cannot capture the effects likely to be caused by nonlinear interactions with coherent waves, particularly chorus. Detailed analytical estimates of nonlinear particle motion in a specified wave have been developed, and and combined with detailed wave models can be used to formulate a combined diffusion-advection equation for the electron phase space density. Quasi-linear diffusion is recovered for small amplitude waves, but phase bunching and phase trapping, caused by larger amplitude waves, can also be included.

11:40         H03.11  RELATIVISTIC MICROBURST STORM CHARACTERISTICS: COMBINED SATELLITE AND GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS

S. Dietrich, C. J. Rodger, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand;  M. A. Clilverd, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom;  J. Bortnik, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA;  T. Raita, , ,  

We report a comparison of SAMPEX detected relativistic electron microbursts and short-lived subionospheric VLF perturbations termed FAST events, observed at Sodankyl Geophysical Observatory, Finland, during 2005. The observed FAST event perturbation decay times were consistent with ionospheric recovery from bursts of relativistic electron precipitation. Our study strongly suggests that the region over which microbursts occur during storm event periods can be at least ~90 in longitude (~6 hours in MLT). This confirms earlier estimates of microburst storm size, suggesting that microbursts could be a significant loss mechanism for radiation belt relativistic electrons during geomagnetic storms.

12:00          End of the Session

J03 – Technology Development for the SKA Program

Session Chairs: Ken Kellermann, Richard Schilizzi

Session     J03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-12:00

Room        Marmara

08:00         J03.1  POWER CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY (SKA) RADIO TELESCOPE

P. J. Hall, International Cente for Radio Astronomy Research (Curtin Institute of Radio Astronomy), Perth, WA, Australia

The SKA will be the world's most sensitive radio telescope and is expected to be fully operational below 10 GHz by 2023. It will extend over more than 3000 km but over half its collecting area will be located at one of two remote, radio-quiet sites in either Australia or South Africa. The instrument will collect and process vast amounts of information, and the provision of reliable, affordable electrical power over a 30-50 year operational lifetime is a major challenge. This paper outlines some of the issues and a few exemplar innovations in the SKA power area.

08:20         J03.2  THE SKA RFI AND TROPOSPHERIC SITE TESTING PROGRAM

R. P. Millenaar, SPDO, Manchester, United Kingdom

The Square Kilometre Array project will soon decide upon where this new large radio telescope will be located, on the basis of a range of criteria. Two environmental aspects are examined for maximum scientific return through measurements at candidate sites: the radio frequency interference (RFI) and tropospheric environments. High sensitivity as well as high speed measurements will make an inventory of the RFI at the core sites and at a selection of remote sites. Tropospheric phase stability will be investigated using two identical interferometer systems pointed to geostationary satellites, in a campaign lasting at least one year. A report.

08:40         J03.3  SIGNAL TRANSPORT AND NETWORKS FOR THE SKA

R. McCool, The SKA Programme Development Office, Manchester, United Kingdom

The signal transport and networks of the SKA are the backbone of the telescope; they interface with almost every aspect of the system. They provide services, fundamental to the operation of the SKA as an aperture synthesis interferometer, such as timing and synchronisation and the transmission of data from receptors to a correlator. Signal transport and networks provide communication links both internally to the telescope and externally to the SKA regional centres around the world. This paper will describe the requirements placed on these networks by the telescope and the technical progress in developing solutions to deliver this required functionality.

09:00         J03.4  REFLECTOR ANTENNAS (DISHES) FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY (SKA)

P. E. Dewdney, N. Roddis, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Parabolic reflectors (dishes) are the most general purpose, flexible antennas used in radio astronomy, typically able with multiple feeds to cover two orders of magnitude in frequency. The SKA requirements will push the limits of dish design for decimetre wavelengths beyond that of any existing dishes. The SKAs sensitivity as well as its wide-field imaging requirements push performance limits, while the need to produce and deploy thousands of dishes in an array spanning continental baselines push cost and fabrication limits. This paper will discuss SKA requirements and a combination of techniques being brought to bear on this design problem.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         J03.5  THE SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY (SKA)

K. Cloete, P. E. Dewdney, SKA Program Development Office, Manchester, United Kingdom

As a global project the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) engineering activities are conducted in parallel at many levels and within many global institutions and companies. While the SKA will offer huge science impact, the myriad of potential solutions to its technical challenges put forward and the sheer complexity of the telescope system indicate a rigorous systematic approach. In projects of this scale, the discipline of system engineering has been found to be the key to a successful, focussed design. This paper will present the approach, progress, status and challenges of the system design effort of the SKA.

10:00         J03.6  GENERIC CONFIGURATIONS FOR THE SKA

R. Bolton, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom;  R. Millenaar, SPDO, Manchester, United Kingdom  

We have developed generic layouts for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the Square Kilometre Array. We present these layouts here and show some examples of their sensitivity performance in the uv domain. These layouts are useful for providing comparisons between "ideal" layouts and those that meet the siting constraints arising in reality where geography and human activity limit the accessible terrain.

10:20         J03.7  MEASUREMENT OF A 10 METRE COMPOSITE RADIO DISH SURFACE SHAPE BETWEEN 2008 AND 2010

G. Lacy, A. Gray, National Research Council, Penticton, BC, Canada

A composite radio reflector (the MkII) was molded at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in 2008. The MkII was built as a demonstrator for the International Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Since 2008, the MkII has been used to test a prototype Phased Array Feed (PHAD). This PHAD demonstrator puts a substantial load on the structure. The MkII telescope has also been used to investigate composite thermal and weathering issues. The surface shape of the main reflector were recorded in 2008 and again in 2010 using a laser scanner. These data are compared. Some interesting results are presented.

10:40         J03.8  PHASED ARRAY FEEDS FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY

W. A. van Cappellen, J. G. Bij de Vaate, ASTRON, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands;  K. F. Warnick, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA;  B. Veidt, NRC, Penticton, BC, Canada;  R. G. Gough, C. A. Jackson, CSIRO, Marsfield, NSW, Australia;  N. Roddis, SKA Program Development Office, Manchester, United Kingdom  

A novel method to form multiple instantaneous beams on the sky with a reflector antenna is to employ a dense Phased Array Feed (PAF). This technology is currently being developed to greatly increase the survey speed of existing and future radio telescopes. This paper reviews the current state of PAF development projects at several international radio astronomy institutes, the particular challenges and the potential for incorporation of PAFs into the ultimate radio survey instrument: the Square Kilometre Array.

11:00         J03.9  DENSE APERTURE ARRAYS FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY

A. J. Faulkner, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Aperture phased arrays operating up to 1.4 GHz are an exciting technology for the Square Kilometre Array, SKA. Phased array stations bring major scientific opportunities including high survey speeds, flexible searching for transient phenomena, and multi-beaming capability not possible with other collectors. The technological requirements of high frequency phased arrays are severe with the channel count and required digital processing. Roadmapping shows that technical developments make a system realistic from 2018. The Aperture Array Verification Program, AAVP, is working on a sparse low frequency array and a dense array from 400MHz to 1450MHz for the SKA.

11:20         J03.10  WIDEBAND FEEDS AND LOW NOISE AMPLIFIERS FOR LARGE ARRAYS

S. Weinreb, A. Akgiray, D. Russell, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States

The state of the art for feeds and LNAs with frequency ranges approaching one decade will be presented. These components reduce the cost of receivers required to cover a given frequency range and enable observations requiring large bandwidth such as spectral index measurements, search for spectral lines with unknown red shift, and detection of transient events. An example of a 2 to 12 GHz feed will be given and compared in efficiency with an octave band feed. Low noise amplifiers for the 0.5 to 12 GHz range utilizing HEMT and SiGe bipolar transistor will be desribed.

11:40         J03.11  PATHFINDERS AND PRECURSORS FOR THE SKA

J. M. Cordes, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

I will discuss pathfinding activities in science, technology development and cyber-infrastructure that are relevant to the Square Kilometre Array. Technology development includes work on dish antennas, wideband dipole arrays, wideband feed antennas, and widefield phased array feeds. Science applications include time-domain exploration, deep continuum imaging, and high-rate surveys. The implied data volumes are growing exponentially and need to be matched with data management and mining systems.

12:00          End of the Session

K03 – Environmental EMF Exposure Assessment

Session Chairs: Yngve Hamnerius, Georg Neubauer

Session     K03

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 08:00-10:40

Room        Loft

08:00         K03.1  ASSESSMENT OF THE REAL LIFE EXPOSURE TO 2G AND 3G BASE STATIONS OVER A DAY FROM INSTANTANEOUS MEASUREMENT

Z. Mahfouz1,2, A. Gati1, D. Lautru2, J. Wiart1,3, V. F. Hanna2;  1France Telecom Orange Labs, Paris, France; 2UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France; 3Orange Labs & Institut Telecom Common Lab, Paris, France

In this paper, the general public daily exposure to mobile telephony is investigated. The considered signals are GSM900, GSM1800, UMTS and HSDPA. The study focus on the assessment of the maximal real electric field received over the day from an instantaneous measurement performed any time during the day. An extrapolation factor is presented to extrapolate an instantaneous measurement for any signal to the maximal possible value received by this signal over the day. This factor is also given to extrapolate the total electric field received to his possible maximum value over the day.

08:20         K03.2  DISTRIBUTION OF ELF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN SWEDISH DWELLINGS

Y. Hamnerius, S. Atefi, A. Eslami, M. Hopeson, A. Khan, G. Silva, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden;  J. Estenberg, Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm, Sweden  

The distribution of ELF magnetic fields in randomly selected Swedish dwellings has been assessed. The results show that 89 % of the measured houses have average magnetic fields below 0.2 uT with mean value of 0.11 uT and median value 0.05 uT. Comparing villas and apartments show that the median magnetic fields value for apartments is 0.07 uT compared to 0.04 uT for villas. The dominating frequency of the magnetic field was 50 Hz. The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the magnetic field was measured; the median value of THD was 10.3 %.

08:40         K03.3  A EUROPEAN INITIATIVE TO DEVELOP PROCEDURES AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR WORKER'S ELECTROMAGNETIC SAFETY (WEMS)

M. Douglas1, J. Nadakuduti1, M. Wild2, S. Kühn1,2, M. Capstick1, N. Kuster1;  1ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Zurich, Switzerland

A project is described that is developing procedures and instrumentation to demonstrate compliance with EU Directive 2004/40/EC. In 2012, the directive will pose new requirements on employers in the European Union to evaluate the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Implementation of these requirements is a significant challenge to employers, many of whom lack the resources and expertise required to demonstrate compliance with EMF limits. Some industries that use high-current or high-voltage equipment in the workplace are particularly affected, such as the automotive, railway and metal fabrication industries. Simple and reliable tools are necessary for employers in these industries.

09:00         K03.4  A NEW WEB BASED SYSTEM TO EVALUATE WORKERS EXPOSURE ACCORDING TO REQUIREMENTS OF THE DIRECTIVE 2004/40/EC

H. Molla-Djafari, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Seibersdorf, Austria

The Directive 2004/40/EC of the European Commission has the purpose to protect workers against adverse affects from electromagnetic fields (EMF). To achieve this several requirements are imposed on employers that can be hardly managed by them. It was therefore decided to develop a software system dedicated to enable employers to evaluate the exposure of their employees without having any specific expertise on EMF. This Austrian system called EMES has a database with distance depending exposure data from about 1.000 electromagnetic sources. The exposure arising from all selected sources is calculated and compared to the limits .

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         K03.5  ELECTROMAGNETIC SOURCE MODELING USING PHASE RETRIEVAL METHODS

M. Johansson, H.-S. Lui, A. Fhager, M. Persson, Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

Modeling of the field distributions from electromagnetic sources is of interest for various applications for example electromagnetic compatibility investigations, near-field to far-field transformations, antenna diagnostics and electromagnetic dosimetry. In order to determine whether exposure safety guidelines, such as the EU directive 2004/40/EC, are complied with, source modeling methods are important. Methods for determining the total field, including phase information, when only field amplitudes have been measured on a set of planes in front of an electromagnetic source have been developed. Promising results have been obtained both for numerical test cases and for measured field.

10:00         K03.6  EXPOSURE CHAMBERS FOR VERIFICATION OF MICROWAVE INFLUENCE ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

J. Vrba, L. Visek, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

The main aim of our work is to design and simulate an exposure chamber in order to analyze the influence of electromagnetic field on mice which can simulate mobile phone emission patterns. We use two types of structures and compare their properties to find the best design for our future work.

10:20         K03.7  RESEARCHING OF FERROMAGNETIC INCLUSIONS INFLUENCE ON PROTECTING PROPERTIES OF SHIELDING COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH DIELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC STRUCTURE ELEMENTS

H. Pukhir, BSUIR, Minsk, Belarus

The effect of ferromagnetic impurities in electromagnetic absorbers is studied. It has established that a small amount of magnetic powder in composite structure influence on attenuation and reflection characteristics of shielding material. These magnetic inclusions can increase the attenuation at 15 dB and reflection coefficient at 2,5 dB in comparison with dielectric samples. The compound with powders of silica and nickel-zinc ferrite as a base of shielding composite has investigated. The dependence of the shielding characteristics of the composite is shown. The use of these composite materials for creation of electromagnetic shielding constructions are considered.

10:40          End of the Session

C05 – Radio Science for Information Security and Social Safety

Session Chairs: Takashi Ohira, Satoru Aikawa, Masamune Takeda

Session     C05

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 10:20-12:00

Room        Dolmabahçe A

10:20         C05.1  A KEY GENERATION TECHNIQUE USING ARRAY ANTENNA BEAM SELECTION

S. Aikawa, Graduate school of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo, Japan

Recently, secret key generation schemes for wireless communication systems using propagation performance are researched. RSSI, signal strength indications received at AP (Access Point) and UT (User Terminal) are same value in TDD systems because of reciprocity theorem, and are controlled by the array antenna pattern. However, RSSI at TP (Tapping Point) is not same as RSSI at AP or UT that depend on their location. The secret keys are generated from binarized RSSIs. This paper describes a method for improving the probability of key agreement between AT and UT by using array antennas control.

10:40         C05.2  EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF WIRELESS SECRET KEY AGREEMENT USING ARRAY ANTENNAS

T. Shimizu, N. Otani, T. Kitano, H. Iwai, H. Sasaoka, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan

This paper considers the problem of wireless secret key agreement based on radio propagation characteristics, where two legitimate parties generate and share a secret key by exploiting the radio propagation characteristics between them in the presence of an eavesdropper. We developed an experimental system using array antennas to implement the wireless secret key agreement. In this paper, we present the experimental system and validate basic characteristics that are fundamental for the wireless secret key agreement, such as the reciprocity and position dependence of radio propagation characteristics, with the developed system.

11:00         C05.3  IMPACT OF DIRECT-PATH WAVE ON IMAC IN SECRET KEY AGREEMENT SYSTEM USING ESPAR ANTENNAS

T. Yoshida, S. Takafumi, K. Fujiki, K. Uematsu, T. Ohira, H. Uehara, Toyohashi University of Technology, toyohashi, Japan

Current cryptography may be potentially decrypted by an extremely high performance computer. More secure key sharing schemes are expected. One possible solution is secret key agreement system which makes use of Electrically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator (ESPAR) antenna. In this scheme ideally, by using wave propagation characteristics, eavesdropper cannot guess secret key from regular terminals. Actually however, eavesdropper has chances to guess the key if he is located on the line of direct-path wave between regular terminals. In our study, we evaluate the impact of direct-path wave on Information mutual anti-tapping condition (Imac) under a noisy channel.

11:20         C05.4  NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR IMPROVING BLUETOOTH NETWORKS SECURITY THROUGH SVD-BASED AUDIO WATERMARKING

M. M. M. El-Bendary, Helwan Universirty, Cairo, Egypt;  A. Abou elazm, N. El-Fishawy, F. Sayed, F. Shawki, Menofia niversity, Menof, Egypt  

The Paper improves the security over IEEE 802.15.1 networks. It proposes a new approach for audio watermarking using the singular value decomposition (SVD) mathematical technique. This approach is based on embedding the encrypted image in the singular values of the audio signal after transforming it into a 2-D format. After watermark embedding, the audio signal is transformed again into a 1-D format. At the receiver the watermark signal is reconstructed and extracting the image. The proposed audio watermarking approach maintains the high quality of the audio signal and that the watermark extraction and decryption are possible.

11:40         C05.5  DETECTION OF LANDSLIDE USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

P. K. Mishra, S. K. Shukla, S. Dutta, S. K. Chaulya, G. M. Prasad, Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad, India

Wireless sensor networking is one of the emerging areas which are extensively being used for development of real-time monitoring systems. This paper discusses the development of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to detect landslides, which includes design and development of WSN for real time monitoring system. A laboratory trial has been performed using wireless sensor networking with the integration of different sensors to detect the landslide.

12:00          End of the Session

KT – Epidemiology of RF and Cancer

Session Chair: Emilie Van Deventer

Session     KT

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 11:00-12:00

Room        Loft

11:00         KT.1  EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RF AND CANCER

J. Schüz, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

There is still an ongoing scientific controversy whether exposure to electromagnetic fields is associated with an increased cancer risk in humans. Epidemiological studies have shown a consistent association between exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and the risk of leukemia in children, but even after decades of investigations it is unclear whether the observed association is causal or due to bias and limitations of the studies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has therefore classified ELF magnetic fields as possible carcinogenic to humans. Several studies of different designs investigated the association between radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields related to the use of mobile phones and the risk of brain tumors. While short-term use of mobile phones of less than ten years was not related to any increased tumor risk, uncertainty remains particularly for longer term heavy users. Mobile phone studies are methodologically challenging and future study protocols need to reduce limitations observed in studies available today.

12:00          End of the Session

A04 – EM Materials

Session Chair: Sedki Riad

Session     A04

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Dolmabahçe C

13:40         A04.1  AN OVERVIEW OF THE TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

O. V. Tereshchenko, F. J. K. Buesink, F. B. J. Leferink, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands

In Power Electronics devices, such as modern power supply, EMI filters occupy a substantial portion of the volume. To achieve a breakthrough an innovative production process is needed with lower cost, higher reliability, controlled EMI, controlled quality and a higher level of circuit integration. One of the most promising approaches in current research is the modification of embedded electromagnetic interference filters (EMI) through the improvement of their design and choosing material with the required qualities at an acceptable cost. To achieve this an overview of the techniques for measuring the dielectric properties of materials has been done.

14:00         A04.2  ELECTROSTATIC MEASUREMENTS OF LOW CAPACITANCE CHANGES IN A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR

C. Sohl1, M. Gustafsson1, G. Kristensson1, D. Lovric1, M. Nilsson1, A. Sunesson1,2;  1Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2Lite On Mobile, Lund, Sweden

This paper describes an electrostatic experimental setup to measure the capacitance change when an uncharged object of arbitrary shape is inserted into a parallel plate capacitor. The employed measurement technique is discussed in detail, and measurements on two conducting spheres and two conducting circular cylinders of finite height are presented and compared with numerical simulations. It is concluded that the experimental setup is capable of detecting capacitance changes down to 10 aF.

14:20         A04.3  (withdrawn)

14:40         A04.4  DIELECTRIC MATERIAL MEASUREMENTS SUPPORTED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD SOLVERS

E. Kilic, U. Siart, C. H. Schmidt, T. F. Eibert, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich, Germany

An iterative transmission line technique for the determination of complex permittivity of non-magnetic, isotropic materials is addressed. The method is based on minimizing the objective function measuring the error between simulated and measured scattering parameters by classical Newton's method. An Electromagnetic field solver is used to solve the forward problem which is repeated in the application of Newton's method at each iteration. Since full-wave simulation is carried out, the method has no strict limitations on the geometry of the samples. For validation, proposed method is tested against partially loaded waveguide measurements at K-band.

15:00         A04.5  MULTI-SCALE ELECTROMAGNETIC BAND GAP STRUCTURES AND ANTENNA APPLICATIONS

E. Ozdemir, Mustafa Kemal University, iskenderun, Turkey;  C. Sabah, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitt, Frankfurt, Germany  

Multi-scale rectangular mushroom structure, high impedance ground plane (HIGP), is designed to achieve large band gap. By suppressing surface waves, the structure becomes eligible for antenna applications. The HIGPs are composed of three different sized rectangular patch mushroom elements for different resonance frequencies. The characterizations of the three scaled HIGP with varying all dimensions are observed for GHz frequency range. Some antenna designs for free space application and the effect of the multi-scale HIGP on these antennas are also presented.

15:20         A04.6  RADIO-FREQUENCY TRANSPORT OF SINGLE ELECTRONS IN SUPERCONDUCTOR-NORMAL-METAL TUNNEL JUNCTIONS AND THE QUANTUM METROLOGICAL TRIANGLE

A. Kemppinen1, V. F. Maisi1, O.-P. Saira2, S. Kafanov2, S. V. Lotkhov3, Y. A. Pashkin4, T. Aref2, M. Meschke2, M. Mottonen2, O. Hahtela1, J. Hassel5, J. Luomahaara5, E. Mykkanen1, H. Koivula1, D. V. Averin6, H. Seppa5, J.-S. Tsai4, A. B. Zorin3, A. Manninen1, J. P. Pekola2;  1MIKES, Espoo, Finland; 2Aalto University, Espoo, Finland; 3PTB, Braunschweig, Germany; 4NEC, Tsukuba, Japan; 5VTT, Espoo, Finland; 6Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA

We are developing a single-electron turnstile based on a nanoscale superconductor-insulator--normal-metal--insulator-superconductor (SINIS) structure. The goal is to obtain the frequency to current conversion I=ef with a relative uncertainty <10^-8 which would be sufficient for a quantum-based standard of electric current. Finally, the quantum current standard will be compared against the quantum standards of voltage and resistance via Ohm's law in the quantum metrological triangle experiment.

15:40          End of the Session

B04 – Electromagnetic Field Transformations for Measurements and Numerical Methods

Session Chair: Thomas Eibert

Session     B04

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

13:40         B04.1  SEPARATION OF RADIATION FROM TWO SOURCES FROM THEIR KNOWN RADIATED SUM FIELD

T. A. Laitinen, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo, Finland;  S. Pivnenko, Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark  

This paper presents a technique for complete and exact separation of the radiated fields of two sources (at the same frequency) from the knowledge of their radiated sum field. The two sources can be arbitrary but it must be possible to enclose the sources inside their own non-intersecting minimum spheres so that the closest distance between the surfaces of the two spheres is of the order of at least a few wavelengths.

14:00         B04.2  PLANE WAVE BASED NEAR-FIELD FAR-FIELD TRANSFORMATION WITH ADAPTIVE FIELD TRANSLATIONS

C. H. Schmidt, M. A. Qureshi, T. F. Eibert, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich, Germany

Near-field transformation algorithms compute the antenna radiation pattern from a measurement in the radiating near field. The plane wave based near-field transformation algorithm has a low numerical complexity while achieving full probe correction and it is applicable to arbitrary measurement grids giving a huge flexibility for near-field probing. The transmission equation for a set of measurement points is evaluated in a multilevel fashion and the field translations are now carried out on different levels depending on the distance of the measurement point from the antenna. The adaptive field translations allow to enhance the accuracy of the transformation.

14:20         B04.3  AN IMPROVED IMAGE-BASED NEAR-FIELD-TO-FAR-FIELD TRANSFORMATION FOR CYLINDRICAL SCANNING SURFACES

H. Kobayashi, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan;  A. Osipov, Microwaves and Radar Institute, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany;  H. Suzuki, KEYCOM Corporation, Tokyo, Japan  

An improved image-based circular NFFFT developed recently for smaller measurement facilities and for targets with pronounced scattering centers offset from the center of the imaging area is extended to a cylindrical scanning surface. Scanning over a surface instead of a circle permits RCS estimations for targets whose size in the direction perpendicular to the measurement plane is comparable to their extension in the measurement plane.

14:40         B04.4  NEAR-FIELD ESTIMATION USING A REDUCED BASIS EXPANSION OF INDUCED MODES IN A HUMAN HEAD MODEL FROM EQUIVALENT SOURCES

O. Aiouaz1, D. Lautru2, M.-F. Wong1, A. Gati1, J. Wiart1, V. Fouad Hanna2;  1Whist Lab, Issy-les-moulineaux, France; 2L2E, Paris, France

A new approach to evaluate near-field induced by a cellular phone in a human head model using an E-field expansion into a basis is proposed. This technique is first based on Huygens principle using equivalent currents on a closed surface which makes it valid for any cellular phone. Then, using Singular Value Decomposition, the generated induced E-field by any cellular phones would be expanded with the orthonormalized modes excited by the equivalent sources in a human head model. Finally, we estimate the error reconstruction of E-field using a reduced number of modes.

15:00         B04.5  REFLECTION/TRANSMISSION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR PLANAR MATERIALS AND VERIFICATION BY THIN WIRE GRIDS

S. E. Bayer, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey;  A. Celik, A. Ergin, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey  

This paper describes a measurement system to evaluate the reflection and transmission (R/T) properties of planar materials have been constructed within the Open-Range EM Laboratory (ASEMLAB) of Gebze Institute of Technology. This manuscript describes this measurement system, calibration process, and the results of an application - measurement of the R/T coefficients of a thin wire mesh. In order to check the measured R/T coefficients of the thin wire mesh a periodic method of moments (PMM) code has been developed. The currents that leave one periodic cell and enter the next are handled in a novel way.

15:20         B04.6  METHOD OF MOMENTS ANALYSIS OF AN AXISYMMETRIC CHIRAL RADOME

H. Mustacoglu, Anaren Microwave, Inc., East Syracuse, NY, United States;  J. R. Mautz, E. Arvas, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States  

An axisymmetric chiral radome has been analyzed numerically by using the method of moments. The chiral body is illuminated by a plane wave and the surface equivalence principle is used to replace the body by equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents. The scattered fields outside and the total internal fields are computed with a Matlab computer program that is developed for axisymmetric chiral radome. Examples of numerical calculations are given for a chiral spherical radome and chiral Von Karman radome. Numerical results of the chiral spherical radome are in excellent agreement with the exact ones obtained by the eigenfunction solution.

15:40          End of the Session

B05 – Theoretical and Numerical Issues in Electromagnetics

Session Chairs: Roberto Graglia, Levent Gurel

Session     B05

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Loft

13:40         B05.1  WELL CONDITIONED HIERARCHICAL NEDELEC ELEMENTS FOR SURFACE AND VOLUMETRIC CELLS

R. D. Graglia, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy;  A. F. Peterson, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA  

New families of hierarchical vector bases for the most commonly used two- and three-dimensional cells are directly constructed from orthogonal scalar polynomials to enhance their linear independence, which is a simpler process than an orthogonalization applied to the final vector functions. These functions span the mixed-order (or reduced) spaces of Nedelec and can be used to deal with structures meshed by a mixture of cells of tetrahedral, hexahedral, and prism shapes. This presentation reviews recent developments of curl-conforming functions and provides an extension to the divergence-conforming case.

14:00         B05.2  MATERIAL REALIZATIONS OF EXTREME ELECTROMAGNETIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND METASURFACES

A. Sihvola, H. Wallen, P. Yla-Oijala, J. Markkanen, I. V. Lindell, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland

The paper discusses the correspondence between electromagnetic boundary conditions and interface conditions. In particular, the focus is on the synthetic approach where the interest is in finding material realizations for given boundary conditions. Material realizations are approximative but not unique because, especially if anisotropic and bianisotropic materials are allowed, there are different material classes with which any given boundary condition can be mimicked. As examples, the PEC, PMC, PEMC, and DB boundary conditions are discussed. By comparing the scattering characteristics, it is demonstrated how well certain extreme-parameter material realizations are able to simulate the boundary effect.

14:20         B05.3  MOM ANALYSIS OF APERTURES IN CHIRAL BODIES OF REVOLUTION

E. Arvas1, K. Qutubuddin1, H. Mustacoglu2, J. R. Mautz1;  1Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States; 2Anaren Microwave, Inc., East Syracuse, NY, United States

A chiral BOR partially covered by a conducting shield is analyzed using MOM. The problem is solved using the equivalence principle. Scattered fields outside are produced by two equivalent surface currents on the BOR surface that radiate in the unbounded external medium. Internal fields are produced by two surface currents on the BOR surface. These two currents radiate in the unbounded internal medium. Boundary conditions at the surface results in a set of coupled integral equations for unknown currents. They are solved using MOM. Computed results for the partially shielded spherical chiral body are in excellent agreement with other data.

14:40         B05.4  MODEL ORDER REDUCTION METHODS FOR MULTIVARIATE PARAMETERIZED DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

K. K. Stavrakakis1, T. Wittig2, W. Ackermann1, T. Weiland1;  1Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Darmstadt, Germany; 2CST AG, Darmstadt, Germany

Electrodynamic field simulations in the frequency domain typically require the solution of large dynamical systems. Model order reduction (MOR) techniques offer a fast approach to approximate the system impedance with respect to the frequency parameter. During the design process, it is desirable to vary specified parameters like the frequency, geometry details or material parameters, giving rise to multivariate dynamical systems. In this work, multivariate MOR methods are presented for multivariate parameterized systems based on the finite integration technique. The methods are applied to numerical examples with both geometrical and material variations.

15:00         B05.5  RIGOROUS SOLUTIONS OF LARGE-SCALE DIELECTRIC PROBLEMS WITH THE PARALLEL MULTILEVEL FAST MULTIPOLE ALGORITHM

O. Ergul1, L. Gurel2,2;  1University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom; 2Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

We present fast and accurate solutions of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving three-dimensional homogeneous dielectric objects. Problems are formulated rigorously with the electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation (JMCFIE) and solved iteratively with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). In order to solve large-scale problems, MLFMA is parallelized efficiently on distributed-memory architectures using the hierarchical partitioning strategy. Efficiency and accuracy of the developed implementation are demonstrated on very large scattering problems discretized with tens of millions of unknowns.

15:20         B05.6  ANALYSIS OF METAMATERIALS USING ANALYTIC PROPERTIES

L. Vietzorreck, T. Kim, HFT, Munich, Germany

It is investigated, how metamaterial structures with a finite number of repeated cells can be analyzed efficiently. The method of lines, a semi-analytical method is utilized. As the propagation in propagation direction is described analytically, Floquet`s Theorem can be used to transform fields at input and output of one cell into a set of Floquet modes. The propagation of these modes through N periods can easily be calculated by the phase difference. Thus the computation time is independent from the period number. Results for a CRLH transmission line are compared with results of commercial tools and measured results.

15:40          End of the Session

C06 – Green Communications

Session Chair: Jacques Palicot

Session     C06

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:20

Room        Dolmabahçe A

13:40         C06.1  RF POWER SOURCE AND ESTIMATION DIVERSITY IN DISTRIBUTED SENSING WITH PASSIVE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

A. O. Bicen, O. B. Akan, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey

Sensor nodes constitute a distributed wireless sensing architecture, such that, multiple sensors report their observations. However, sensor networks are comprised of energy-constrained nodes. Recently, to mitigate battery depletion problem and extend network lifetime, wireless passive sensor networks (WPSN) have become a new field of interest. Modulated backscattering is an important communication technique in WPSN to alleviate reaching unlimited lifetime for sensor nodes. In this paper, we theoretically analyze event distortion in WPSN that is employing modulated backscattering for communication. The objective of this work is to reveal the impact of RF source diversity on event estimation distortion in WPSN.

14:00         C06.2  A COST FUNCTION EXPRESSION FOR SDR MULTI-STANDARD SYSTEMS DESIGN USING DIRECTED HYPERGRAPHS

P. R. Kaiser1, Y. Louet1, A. El Sahili2, J. Palicot1;  1SUPELEC, Rennes, France; 2Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon

The design of future multi-standard systems is very challenging. Flexible architectures exploiting commonalities of different set of standards cohabiting in the device offer promising solutions. In this paper, graph theory aspects are introduced with the stress on the notion of directed hypergraphs. These definitions will be helpful in presenting the theoretical version of the graph structure of the software-defined radio multi-standard system as a directed hypergraph, as well as in providing a formal representation of a certain proposed cost function which computes the cost of any one of the alternatives which can implement the multi-standard system.

14:20         C06.3  DEVELOPMENT OF 24 GHZ RECTENNAS FOR FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS

N. Shinohara, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan;  K. Nishikawa, T. Seki, K. Hiraga, NTT Corporation, Tokyo, Japan  

We need electricity to use wireless information. If we reduce amount of batteries or electrical wires with a wireless power transmission technology via microwave (MPT), it is a green communication system. We Kyoto University propose a Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) system with the MPT with NTT , Japan. In this paper, we show mainly development results of 24GHz rectennas, rectifying antenna, for FWA. We developed some types of the rectennas. Finally we achieve 65% of RF-DC conversion efficiency with output filter of harmonic balance.

14:40         C06.4  HOW TO OPTIMIZE THE SPECTRUM: THE OIL EXPERIENCE

J. Palicot, SUPELEC, Cesson-Svign, France

Since several years, sustainable development (SD) has become an important issue in many technical domains. One of the main contributors in CO2 emission is undoubtly petrol engine. This explains why car industry was the first interested in finding solutions to decrease oil consumption and to optimize car usage. Starting from the idea that spectrum is a natural and public resource which should be carefully used and shared, in this paper we apply to spectrum usage at every levels (standards, equipments, usage, etc.) analogies coming from oil experience.

15:00         C06.5  NON UNIFORM SAMPLING FOR POWER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION IN SDR RECEIVER BASEBAND STAGE

A. Maalej1, M. Ben-Romdhane1, C. Rebai1, P. Desgreys2, P. Loumeau2, A. Ghazel1;  1SUP'COM, Ariana, Tunisia; 2TELECOM ParisTech, PARIS, France

In this paper, authors point out the effect of non uniform sampling (NUS) on the power consumption in SDR receiver baseband stage. This feature is drawn by theoretical formulas regarding spectrum shape and power estimation of different baseband components. An example is drawn to focus on NUS ability to reduce anti-aliasing filter (AAF) consumption by 25%.

15:20          End of the Session

DBC – Signal Processing Antennas

Session Chairs: Smail Tedjini, Alain Sibille, H. Chaloupka

Session     DBC

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Dolmabahçe B

13:40         DBC.1  ON THE DIVERSITY PERFORMANCE OF COMPACT ANTENNA ARRAYS

M. T. Ivrlac, J. A. Nossek, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen, Germany

In contrast to common belief, compact antenna arrays are able to deliver excellent diversity performance provided that a multiport network is connected between the array and the receiver which decouples the antenna ports. It turns out that the diversity performance does not change much as the antenna separation is reduced below half a wavelength. In fact, the diversity performance even increases somewhat with reduced antenna spacing. In an isotropic noise environment, and in the absence of heat loss, excellent diversity performance can be maintained even as the antenna separation is made arbitrarily small.

14:00         DBC.2  RFID TAGS LOCALIZATION ALONG AN AXIS USING A TUNABLE NEAR-FIELD FOCUSED CIRCULAR-PHASE ARRAY ANTENNA

R. Siragusa, P. Lemaitre-Auger, A. Pouzin, S. Tedjini, Laboratoire de Conception et d'Intgration des Systmes (LCIS), Valence, France

A novel concept for RFID tag localization using a tunable near-field focused circular-phase array antenna working at 5.8 GHz is presented. It serves as the reader antenna and focuses the power into a small region, in the tag vicinity. By scanning the focal spot along one axis and monitoring the differential scattered power by a tag, its position along the axis is easily computed with good accuracy. This simple localization scheme is well adapted for specific localization scheme, for example for objects placed over a conveyor belt.

14:20         DBC.3  COMPACT TWO-ELEMENT RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNA SYSTEM FOR THE 470-702 MHZ BAND

C. Lach, L. Rudant, C. Delaveaud, CEA-LETI, Grenoble, France;  A. Azoulay, Suplec, Gif-sur-Yvette, France  

This paper presents a miniature reconfigurable dual-antenna system addressing the UHF band. This system has been introduced for small mobile terminals, where form factor is very important. The whole structure respects some design rules in order to optimize antenna performances from diversity performances point of view. A specific active capacitive load has allowed the impedance reconfigurability and antennas miniaturization. Antenna miniaturization is used to combine radiating structures in an electrically small volume. The use of two antennas could bring good diversity gain to mitigate the fast fading effect introduced by multipath in mobility.

14:40         DBC.4  PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A RECONFIGURABLE MULTIMODE PIXELED ANTENNA IN INDOOR CLUSTERED MIMO CHANNELS

A. Grau Besoli, Broadcom Corporation, Irvine, CA, United States;  F. De Flaviis, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States  

This paper investigates the performance evaluation of a reconfigurable multimode pixeled antenna in wireless communication systems employing antenna pattern/polarization diversity techniques. Simulations have been conducted using an indoor clustered MIMO channel model.

15:00         DBC.5  PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF BI-SCALAR BEAMFORMERS IN PRACTICAL PHASED ARRAY FEED SYSTEMS

S. J. Wijnholds, W. A. van Cappellen, ASTRON, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands;  M. V. Ivashina, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden  

We assess the sensitivity and polarimetric performance of a phased array feed (PAF) system in which the two sets of nominally orthogonally polarized elements are beamformed separately. Out simulations of an actual PAF system indicate that such bi-scalar instead of full-polarimetric beamforming results in about 4% sensitivity loss and an XPD of about 45 dB. Our measurements confirm the sensitivity loss, but indicate worse polarimetric performance than the simulations. We indicate how the performance of a PAF system with bi-scalar beamforming can be improved by beamforming the cross-polarization signals and polarimetric corrections to the beamformer outputs.

15:20         DBC.6  ON ANTENNAS FOR COGNITIVE RADIOS

F. Ghanem, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia;  M. R. Hamid, P. S. Hall, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK  

Cognitive Radios (CR) are a concept of radios endowed with an intelligence that allows them to perceive changes in their environment and adapt their parameters to maintain a quality of Service (QoS). While the parameters concerned by the adaptation enclose theoretically all of those of a radio (modulation, coding, ...etc.), it is certainly the change of the operating frequency that is the most characteristic of CR. In light of this new requirement, the present paper analyzes the features that CR antennas can have. Then, examples of frequency reconfigurable antennas developed by our group for CR will be presented.

15:40          End of the Session

EGH – Terrestrial and Planetary Electromagnetics

Session Chairs: Masashi Hayakawa, Yurdanur Tulunay, Colin Price

Session     EGH

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Galata

13:40         EGH.1  OVERVIEW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES DUE TO THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY AND OBSERVED BY DEMETER

M. Parrot, LPC2E/CNRS, Orleans, France

DEMETER is a low orbiting satellite (660 km) which recorded wave and plasma parameters all around the Earth (except in the auroral zones) at two different local times (10.30 and 22.30 LT). This paper will present the emissions observed in relation with the thunderstorm activity. Many different phenomena have been registred. It includes: - various whistlers, - particle precipitation by whistlers, - interaction with the lower hybrid frequency, - observations of MF pulses, - interaction between thunderstorm activity and man-made activity, - triggered emissions by whistlers, and - emissions observed at the time of very powerful lightning strokes

14:00         EGH.2  DETERMINATION OF THE IONOSPHERIC TRANSMISSION LOSS OF THE LOW FREQUENCY EM WAVES BY SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENTS OF SATELLITE AND GROUND-BASED EXPERIMENTS

Y. Hobara, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan;  M. Parrot, Larboratoire de Physique et Chimie de lEnvironnment et de lEspace, Orleans, France  

The ionospheric transmission loss has been obtained for different latitudes and local times by comparing the Poynting flux at the lightning source by the ground-based ELF transient measurements with lightning whistlers above the ionosphere observed by DEMETER satellite. As a result, the ionospheric penetration loss increases with decreasing the magnetic latitude and with increasing wave frequency. The penetration loss is much larger in daytime rather than night time. The experimentally obtained results are in good agreement with those from theoretical calculations.

14:20         EGH.3  ELF Q-BURST CAUSED BY EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA RAY BURST

A. P. Nickolaenko, Usikov Institute for Radio-physics and Electronics, Nat. Acad. of Sci. of the Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine;  A. Y. Schekotov, Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow, Russia  

Experimental results are presented on electromagnetic pulse associated with the abrupt change in the Earthionosphere cavity caused by the intense gamma ray burst of December 27, 2004. Parameters of observed extremely low frequency pulse correspond to expectations: the source bearing points to the epicenter of ionosphere modification, the waveform is similar to that computed, its amplitude exceeds by a few times the level of regular Schumann resonance background. The ELF pulse onset at the Karymshino observatory (52.8 N, 158.3 E) is ~0.16 s prior to the published time of modification in the VLF records.

14:40         EGH.4  A.C./D.C. ATMOSPHERIC GLOBAL ELECTRIC CIRCUIT PHENOMENA

M. J. Rycroft, CAESAR Consultancy, Cambridge, United Kingdom;  R. G. Harrison, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom  

We review the global circuit driven by thunderstorms and electrified rain clouds. With the ionosphere at an equipotential of ~ +250 kV with respect to the Earth, the load in the circuit is the fair weather atmosphere; its conductivity is mainly determined by the flux of galactic cosmic rays. The circuit exhibits variability in both space and time by more than fifteen orders of magnitude. We discuss results produced by a new electrical engineering analogue model of the circuit constructed using the PSpice software package. Finally, we consider several interesting new experimental observations relating to the topic.

15:00         EGH.5  A VHF BROADBAND INTERFEROMETER FOR LIGHTNING OBSERVATION

T. Ushio1, Z. Kawasaki1,2, M. Akita1, S. Yoshida1, T. Morimoto1, Y. Nakamura1;  1Osaka University, Osaka, Japan; 2Egypt Japan University of Science and Technology, Alexandria, Egypt

A VHF broadband interferometer is a system to locate sources of the radiation events at VHF band by extracting the differences of phases at various frequency components of Fourier spectra between a pair of antennas. Lightning images are derived by sensing the electromagnetic waves from lightning discharge process such as negative stepped leader. Using the system, lightning observations have been carried out firstly for rocket triggered lightning experiment, then, in Darwin Australia, and so on. Based on the successful results, the interferometer system is deployed on the ISS to detect and locate the VHF impulses emitted by lightning from space.

15:20         EGH.6  SEISMOGENIC ULF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY - PECULIARITIES OF REGISTRATION

V. Korepanov, F. Dudkin, Lviv Centre of Institute for Space Research, Lviv, Ukraine

A big number of publications confirm that ultra low frequency (ULF) magnetic precursors were recorded from few weeks up to few hours before earthquakes (EQs). For the detection of magnetic precursors at the background of more powerful sources it is necessary to have magnetic field sensors with wide dynamics and minimum possible spectral noise density. The newly developed technology of EQ-related ULF signals selection is presented. The attempts of this technology application in order to select the candidates for EQ precursors are discussed, basing on the natural ULF signals, collected in India by multi-point synchronized magnetometer network.

15:40          End of the Session

F04 – Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Vegetation (in honor of Roger H. Lang)

Session Chairs: Simonetta Paloscia, Martti Hallikainen

Session     F04

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Haliç

13:40         F04.1  REMOTE SENSING OF SALINITY: THE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT OF SEA WATER

D. M. Le Vine, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States;  R. H. Lang, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States;  C. Utku, Goddard Earth Science Technology Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States;  Y. Tarkocin, TriTeck Solutions, Annandale, VA, United States  

Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

14:00         F04.2  EM DISCRETE APPROACH FOR RAINFALL ATTENUATION OF PROPAGATION

S. S. Seker, A. Y. Citkaya, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey

Electromagnetic propagation through sparse distribution of lossy dielectric particles in a rain is investigated. Mathematical model is developed to aid in the interpretation of the interactions data obtained by electromagnetic remote probing of rain. Attenuation is computed, for waves passing through raindrops specified size, shape and distributions. Computer simulation which is based on the model proposed with different shapes was compared with the experimental data, and excellent agreement was obtained.

14:20         F04.3  POTENTIALS OF X-BAND ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MICROWAVE SENSORS IN MONITORING VEGETATION BIOMASS

S. Paloscia, P. Pampaloni, S. Pettinato, E. Santi, M. Brogioni, G. Fontanelli, G. Macelloni, Institute of Applied Physics - National Research Council - IFAC-CNR, Florence, Italy

In this paper the potentials of both emissivity and backscatter at X-band for the monitoring of plant parameters are investigated and the interrelations between these two quantities are discussed. Remote sensing data collected in agricultural surfaces and for different crop types in Italy have been analyzed and compared with vegetation parameters (mainly plant water content and leaf area index) measured on ground . A discrete element radiative transfer model tuned for both active and passive cases was used to perform a sensitivity analysis. A direct comparison of measured emissivity and backscattering is carried out.

14:40         F04.4  BACKSCATTER MEASUREMENTS OVER VEGETATION BY GROUND-BASED MICROWAVE RADARS

M. Kurum, P. O'Neill, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States

In the study of radar backscattering from vegetated terrain, it is important to understand how the electromagnetic wave interacts with vegetation and underlying ground. In this paper, an expression of backscattering from a vegetation canopy in the case of spherical wave illumination is derived. Such an expression might apply to the practical case of a ground-based scatterometer overlooking vegetation. The relative importance of the beamwidth as well as platform height on backscattering from vegetated terrain is studied. Preliminary results indicate that the discrepancy with plane wave illumination can be rather significant, and therefore should not be overlooked.

15:00         F04.5  CALCULATION OF THE DOUBLE SCATTERING FROM LOSSY DIELECTRIC CYLINDERS

Q. Zhao, R. H. Lang, The George Washington University, Washington,DC, United States

A numerical Fresnel Double Scattering (FDS) method is presented in this paper to accurately calculate the bistatic cross sections due to double scattering between two lossy dielectric cylinders in the Fresnel zone of each other. The cylinders have a comparable size to the wavelength for L band frequencies. It is demonstrated that the FDS results reduce to the far field results when the scatterers are sufficiently far apart. The FDS method can be employed to study the double scattering effects between tree branches in microwave forest scattering models.

15:20         F04.6  COHERENCE EFFECTS IN L-BAND ACTIVE AND PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING OF QUASI-PERIODIC CORN CANOPIES

C. Utku, Goddard Earth Sciences & Technology Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States;  R. H. Lang, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States  

Due to their highly random nature, vegetation canopies can be modeled using the incoherent transport theory for active and passive remote sensing applications. Agricultural vegetation canopies however are generally more structured than natural vegetation. The inherent row structure in agricultural canopies induces coherence effects disregarded by the transport theory. The objective of this study is to demonstrate, via Monte-Carlo simulations, these coherence effects on L-band scattering and thermal emission from corn canopies consisting of only stalks.

15:40          End of the Session

G04 – Practical Applications and Techniques for the Use of Ionosonde Data

Session Chairs: Paul Cannon, Lee-Anne McKinnell

Session     G04

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Topkapi A

13:40         G04.1  PRINCIPLES OF DYNASONDE NAVIGATOR

M. Rietveld, EISCAT Scientific Association, Ramfjordbotn, Norway;  N. Zabotin, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States  

Dynasonde is an ideology of precision ionospheric radio sounding based on rigorously taking into account phase characteristics of a radio echo. Unique products of phase ionosondes intended for various Space Weather-related applications include: echo recognition and noise discrimination, echo classification into traces, scaling of standard ionospheric parameters, 3-D plasma density inversion (NeXtYZ) including true vertical profile with error bars, small-scale irregularity diagnostics, and vector velocities, all obtained autonomously from ionogram data. Our report describes details of implementation of Dynasonde principles in operation of the web portal Dynasonde Navigator (http://dynserv.eiscat.uit.no) hosted by EISCAT.

14:00         G04.2  GLOBAL IONOSPHERIC RADIO OBSERVATORY (GIRO): STATUS AND PROSPECTIVE

I. A. Galkin1, B. W. Reinisch1,2;  1University of Massachusetts Lowell, Center for Atmospheric Research, Lowell, MA, United States; 2Lowell Digisonde International, LLC, Lowell, MA, United States

The Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO), http://giro.uml.edu, acquires and disseminates HF ionospheric sounding data from 64 Digisonde locations in 27 countries. GIRO publishes its 30+ million record holdings over Internet, provides interactive environment to data interpretation experts, and forwards real-time data for assimilation and forecast of radiowave propagation and space weather. Of importance to the ionospheric community are the long-term holdings of manually validated electron density profiles for modeling, studies of the autoscaling uncertainty, and validation of alternative measurement techniques. Real-time GIRO feeds will be used to build an assimilative International Reference Ionosphere model.

14:20         G04.3  HIGH PERFORMANCE IONOSPHERIC SOUNDING

T. W. Bullett, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States

The application of digital receivers, digital signal processing and other advanced electronics and antenna technologies have become sufficiently mature and cost effective to be implemented into High Frequency radars for ionospheric sounding. When these technologies are used to improve the performance of the HF radar, new observational modes with greater resolution, sensitivity and precision are possible, which allow for discovery, research and renewed investigation of the ionosphere. This paper presents unique data from high performance ionosondes.

14:40         G04.4  THE SOUTH AFRICAN IONOSONDE NETWORK: PAST AND PRESENT

L.-A. McKinnell1,2, N. Ssessanga1,2, H. Coetzee3, D. Okoh4;  1Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, Hermanus, South Africa; 2Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa; 3GrinTek Ewation, Pretoria, South Africa; 4University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

The South African ionosonde network has played an extensive role in African Space Physics studies since 1973, and continues to do so with a four ionosonde site network. This paper will describe the growth of this network, and the various practical projects that the network has been involved in, and indeed, made possible over the past decade. Future planned projects will also be discussed, and will include endeavors to grow the network into Africa. In addition, the South African ionospheric map will be used as an example of successful practical applications for the data collected from this network.

15:00         G04.5  ON THE USE OF IONOSONDE PROFILES IN THE ELECTRON DENSITY ASSIMILATIVE MODEL (EDAM)

N. K. Jackson-Booth1, M. Angling1,2;  1QinetiQ, Malvern, United Kingdom; 2Poynting Institute, University of Birming, Birmingham, United Kingdom

The Electron Density Assimilative Model (EDAM) assimilates disparate ionospheric measurements into a background ionospheric model in order to produce 3D representations of ionospheric electron density. Previous tests using EDAM and ground based slant total electron content data have demonstrated that this type of data contains limited information on the vertical structure of the ionosphere. By assimilating data from ionosondes into the model, information regarding the profile peak below the F2 layer can be obtained. This paper describes an assimilation test scenario in the Republic of South Africa and reports on the benefits of including ionosonde data in EDAM.

15:20         G04.6  THE PROJECT OF MONITORING THE IONOSPHERE OVER RUSSIAN FEDERATION BY MEANS OF DIGITAL FMCW IONOSONDES NETWORK

A. G. Kim, K. G. Ratovsky, V. V. Khakhinov, V. I. Kurkin, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences/Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russian Federation

For monitoring the current ionospheric conditions over Russian Federation area in quasi real-time we offer to use modern digital FMCW vertical incidence ionospheric stations capable to receive oblique incidence signals during vertical sounding session. Newness of such ionospheric network consists in combining capabilities of vertical incidence and oblique incidence ionosondes. It becomes possible because of operative technique for reconstruction ionospheric parameters at path midpoint and appearance of modern digital multichannel receivers which were examined by few continuous experimental works in Russian Federation.

15:40          End of the Session

HT – Major developments in our understanding of electric antennas in space plasmas

Session Chair: Yoshiharu Omura

Session     HT

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-14:40

Room        Topkapi B

13:40         HT.1  MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ELECTRIC ANTENNAS IN SPACE PLASMAS

G. James, Communications Research Centre Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Salient points in the history of the science of dipoles as an important part of space radio science methodology are reviewed. From its earliest days, the study of spontaneous radio emissions of geospace has required accurate measurements of wave electric fields. This review starts with the work done early in the space age on distributed dipole behaviour in cold magnetoplasmas. Evidence of the effects of hot-plasma wave modes and of the response of space plasma excited by active antennas led to a broadening of the dipole theory to include the generation and detection of electrostatic waves. The observations of plasma nonlinearities during the operation of active dipoles required further explanation. Indications of nonlinearity included spectra implying parametric processes and the RF- pumping of ambient ions and electrons, both in the dipole near fields. The challenge today of understanding the inherent complexity of dipoles in magnetoplasmas may be met by recourse to particle-in-cell methods to predict classic antenna properties such as impedance, radiated field or effective length.

14:40          End of the Session

J04 – Space and Moon-based radio astronomy: science and technology

Session Chair: Leonid Gurvits

Session     J04

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 13:40-15:40

Room        Marmara

13:40         J04.1  THE PLANCK MISSION

H.-U. Norgaard-Nielsen, Danish Space Research Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark

Planck is an astronomical satellite part of the Scientific Programme of the European Space Agency, which is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution. Planck was launched together with Herschel on 14 May 2009. By August 2011, it will have completed almost three full sky surveys. In January 2011 the first data products and scientific results were released to the public. I will present an overview of the Planck mission, its scientific objectives, the key elements of its technical design, current status, and first scientific results

14:00         J04.2  SPACE-BASED ULTRA-LONG WAVELENGTH RADIO ASTRONOMY AN OVERVIEW OF TODAYS INITIATIVES

M. Bentum1,2, A.-J. Boonstra2, W. Baan2;  1University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; 2ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands

Space based ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy has recently gained interest. The need for large effective apertures spread over long ranges implies that advanced technologies are required, which is in reach at this moment. This together with the unexplored frequency band below 30 MHz makes these initiatives very interesting. Due to a combination of ionospheric scintillation below ~30MHz, its opaqueness below ~10MHz, and man-made RFI, earth-bound radio astronomy observations are either severely limited in sensitivity and spatial resolution or entirely impossible. In this paper we will present current initiatives to reach this new and unexplored low frequency band.

14:20         J04.3  STATUS AND MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE SPACE VLBI MISSION RADIOASTRON

M. Popov, Astro Space Center of the Lebedev Physicxal institute, Moscow, Russian Federation

The RadioAstron project is an international collaborative mission to launch a free-flying satellite carrying a 10-m space radio telescope (SRT) into an elliptical orbit around the Earth. The aim of the mission is to use the space telescope for radio astronomical observations using VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) techniques in conjunction with ground-based VLBI networks. We explain basic parameters of the on-board scientific equipment as was measured during the final tests. Peculiarities of RadioAstron moon-perturbed orbit will be discussed. We will describe satellite operations, experiment scheduling, and science access to the mission

14:40         J04.4  PRECISION RADIO SCIENCE FOR PLANETARY GRAVITY, ATMOSPHERIC AND SURFACE INVESTIGATIONS

S. Asmar, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, United States

Radio Science techniques, microwave links between spacecraft and ground stations, have produced numerous discoveries. SNR and geometrical limitations require new instrumentation such as spacecraft-spacecraft links that require special open-loop receiver. One is on GRACE/GRAIL for gravitational measurements; another onboard New Horizons for uplink occultation. One on MRO demonstrated the method with Odyssey. A new receiver designed to meet Radio Science requirements has been prototyped for the Europa and Ganymede orbiters scientific objectives of occultations of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Jupiter and its satellites, as well as the rings, and bistatic scattering from surfaces of the satellites.

15:00         J04.5  INTRODUCTION OF PROMOTING VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY FOR DEEP SPACE TRACKING IN CHINA

J. Ping, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Shanghai, China

VLBI has been developed in China near 30 years. Since 2003, the astronomical VLBI technique was adapted for tracking and orbiting the Chinese ChangE 1 & 2 missions, and played important role on positioning the orbit injection and hard landing. Since 2007, the concepts of open loop Doppler, DOR and DOD have been accepted by Chinese VLBI system for Martian missions. In the near future, same beam VLBI technique will also be applied by this system for tracking dual Martian mission Phbos-Grunt and Yinghuo-1, as well as positioning the ChangE-3/4 landers & rovers.

15:20         J04.6  VLBI TRACKING OF THE SOLAR SAIL MISSION IKAROS

H. Takeuchi, ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Japan

IKAROS is the world's first solar sail spacecraft which was launched in 2010. To determine the orbit under the continuous big influence of solar radiation pressure, VLBI observation is effective because sky plane position of the spacecraft can be directly determined by VLBI observables without a priori assumption for solar radiation pressure model. In order to effectively perform VLBI measurements, Delta-DOR multi-tone generator was installed to the spacecraft. A total number of 24 VLBI experiments among 8 agencies were performed during July and August in 2010. Data processing algorithm and initial results of orbit determination are presented.

15:40          End of the Session

H04 – Wave-particle Interactions and Their Effects on Planetary Radiation Belts II

Session Chairs: Jacob Bortnik, Craig Rodger, Bruce Tsurutani, Richard Horne

Session     H04

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Tuesday, August 16, 14:40-15:40

Room        Topkapi B

14:40         H04.1  CONJUGATE STUDIES OF WHISTLER-MODE WAVES IN THE VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELTS

O. Santolik1, J. S. Pickett2, M. Parrot3, D. A. Gurnett2, N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin4;  1Institute of Atmospheric Physics and Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA; 3LPC2E/CNRS, Orleans, France; 4LPP/Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France

Whistler-mode waves, especially chorus, can influence energetic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. These electromagnetic waves propagate over long distances in the magnetosphere. It has been previously shown that chorus can propagate from its equatorial source down to the subauroral ionosphere. We investigate cases where whistler-mode waves were simultaneously measured by the Cluster spacecraft in the magnetosphere and by the low-orbiting Demeter spacecraft. Multicomponent measurements of both these spacecraft missions allow us to investigate the wave-vector directions and Poynting flux. We can therefore show conjugate propagation properties of the waves in two different magnetospheric regions.

15:00         H04.2  DETECTION OF MAGNETOSPHERICALLY DUCTED VLF SIGNALS GEOMAGNETICALLY CONJUGATE TO A RUSSIAN ALPHA TRANSMITTER AT L=1.9

M. B. Cohen1, M. Golkowski2, U. S. Inan1,3, M. Parrot4;  1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States; 2University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, United States; 3Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey; 4CNRS, Orleans, France

The Russian 'Alpha' transmitters broadcast alternating pulses between 11-15 kHz for navigation. A fraction of the VLF energy escapes into the magnetosphere, is guided by ducts, amplified by interaction with radiation belt particles, and observed at the geomagnetic conjugate point. We analyze VLF data from Adelaide, Australia, conjugate to Komsomolsk transmitter. An automated detection scheme separates the subionospheric and magnetospheric signals. We track availability of ducts at L=1.9 and find them present often. We correlate to geomagnetic conditions and assess the role of wave growth and triggering from wave-particle interactions, and compare to DEMETER satellite measurements.

15:20         H04.3  ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OBSERVED BY DEMETER DURING SUSTAINED MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

M. Parrot, LPC2E/CNRS, Orleans, France

DEMETER is a low polar orbiting satellite (660 km) which was operating for more than six years. This paper will present an overview of the electromagnetic waves observed during sustained magnetic activity, and then enhanced by a wave-particle interaction. It includes: - waves such as hiss, chorus, QP (Quasi Periodic) emissions, triggered emissions, EMIC (ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron) waves in the equatorial region, - emissions at the lower hybrid frequency, - man-made waves such as PLHR (Power Line Harmonic Radiation) and MLR (Magnetospheric Line Radiation), and - specific waves recorded during very intense magnetic activities or in particular regions (SAA, sub-auroral zones).

15:40          End of the Session


AB1 – Antenna Measurement

Session Chair: William Davis

Session     AB1

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Dolmabahçe C

08:00         AB1.1  TOWARD ACCURATE ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS USING MULTI-PROBE SYSTEMS

T. A. Laitinen1, J. Toivanen2, P. Vainikainen1;  1Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo, Finland; 2Said Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

A few important aspects related to spherical multi-probe antenna measurements and their future research and development needs are discussed. In particular, the significance of the test zone field compensation technique as an enabler for accurate antenna measurements with multi-probe systems is addressed.

08:20         AB1.2  RAPID MILLIMETER-WAVE ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS USING A NOVEL TABLE-TOP BIPOLAR PLANAR NEAR-FIELD TECHNIQUE

Y. Rahmat-Samii, T. Brockett, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, United States

Bipolar planar antenna measurements have been used as an alternative to other planar scanning techniques such as plane-rectangular or plane-polar scanning. Bipolar scanning features important advantages such as the elimination of linear motion in measurement, increased stability, compact footprint, and a variety of data acquisition modes. These advantages mitigate many of the issues of measuring small antennas operating at millimeter-wave frequencies. This paper describes and elaborate on the advantages of the bipolar scanner for millimeter-wave antenna measurement, including at introduction of new scanning modes that can help dramatically reduce measurement time over previously implemented scanning modes.

08:40         AB1.3  DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF A PLANAR NEAR FIELD ANTENNA MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

Y. Ozturk1,2, F. Ustuner1;  1TUBITAK BILGEM UEKAE, Gebze, Turkey; 2Gebze Institute of Technology, Cayýrova, Turkey

Radiation pattern measurement is one of the major issues in antenna characterization. This measurement is performed in the far field range, which can be several tens of meters for the case of directive antennas. Near field approach renders these measurements possible inside a small laboratory. Nevertheless, since the design and the realization of near field antenna measurement systems require detailed engineering, they are fairly expensive. For obtaining a low-cost, maintainable and native near field antenna measurement system, an engineering activity was conducted and a near field measurement system was developed. Here we present antenna patterns measured by this system.

09:00         AB1.4  A DIRECT MATRIX APPROACH TO 3-D ANTENNA RADIATION-PATTERN ESTIMATION FROM PARTIALLY-SCANNED SPHERICAL NEAR-FIELD DATA

T. Yang, W. A. Davis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, United States

Far-field radiation-pattern estimation is explored for partially-scanned, spherical near-field data resulting from physical limitations of antenna under test or associated measurement systems. A direct matrix approach, based on spherical-wave expansions, is found to be simple and effective for constructing the 3D pattern from partially-scanned near-field data. Criteria on the minimum near-field data for full 3D pattern reconstruction is explained. The concept of the direct matrix approach is demonstrated for mobile and horn antennas. A reduction of the scan time is an added benefit of this antenna measurement method.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         AB1.5  THE ENGINEERING IMPLEMENT OF ANTENNA TIME-DOMAIN NEAR-FIELD MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

B. Cui, Z. Xue, N. Wang, W. Ren, W. Li, X. Xu, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China

At present, a complete measurement system has been built up successfully by our laboratory, besides its engineering implement has been accomplished also. We can show an antennas radiation field in a form of 3D animation dynamically with this measurement system, which demonstrates the time-domain near-field measurement theory and the time-domain near-field measurement system are practical. The present paper will introduce the basic principles, the components of the system and the essential techniques. The screenshots of the dynamic 3D animation will be shown in the part of conclusion at last.

10:00         AB1.6  AN INNOVATIVE AND EFFICIENT METHOD TO MEASURE SMALL ANTENNAS IN WATER CONDUITS

D. Trinchero, R. Stefanelli, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy

Wireless Sensor Networks have been recently proposed for applications in many systems. Among all, the possibility to insert a node inside a liquid has attracted attention by few authors. The paper presents the design and construction of a test bench for experimental characterization of antennas inside liquids. The design has involved the classification of a large variety of pipelines, among which three different samples have been selected. The pipeline has consequently been configured in order to host fixed or mobile antennas, which can be wired towards the external part of the conduit, to facilitate their connection to a network analyzer.

10:20         AB1.7  A MODIFIED VERSION OF THE RADIATION PATTERN INTEGRATION METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENTS OF THE RADIATION EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRICALLY SMALL MAGNETIC ANTENNAS

R. Stefanelli, D. Trinchero, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy

The radiation efficiency of an antenna is always critical to characterize experimentally. In this paper four methods are reviewed and analyzed: the Wheeler method, Q method, radiometric method and radiation pattern integration method. Among them, a modified version of the last is introduced, in order to obtain a more efficient and faster measurement procedure, applicable to the characterization of small magnetic antennas. The simulation results demonstrate that using this method an improvement of 70% of the time and calculation effort can be reached. Nevertheless, the method introduces an acceptable uncertainty, never larger than 0.5 dB.

10:40          End of the Session

B06 – Multiscale Modeling and Applications to Composite Materials

Session Chairs: Niklas Wellander, Daniel Sjoberg

Session     B06

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

08:00         B06.1  ANTI-RESONANT RESPONSE OF RESONANT INCLUSIONS?

H. Wallen, H. Kettunen, J. Qi, A. Sihvola, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo, Finland

When retrieving the material parameters of a metamaterial with resonant inclusions, the expected Lorentz-like resonance in one parameter typically yields an unexpected and unphysical so-called antiresonance in the other effective parameter. Using a simple model problem with plasmonic cylinders, we discuss some explanations for the antiresonance-problem and argue that the fundamental reason is that the assumed homogeneous model with sharp boundaries is insufficient when the retrieval fails to produce physically reasonable results. Some promising paths towards a better model are also briefly discussed.

08:20         B06.2  CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OPTICAL MODES IN 3D-PERIODIC ARRAYS OF METALLIC NANOSPHERES

S. Campione1, S. Steshenko2,3, M. Albani2, F. Capolino1;  1University of California, Irvine, Irvine, United States; 2University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 3Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics of the National Academy of Sciences, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Complex optical modes in 3D-periodic arrays of metallic nanospheres are analyzed at optical frequencies for both longitudinal and transversal (with respect to the mode traveling direction) polarization states. Each nanosphere is modeled to act as a single dipole by using the single dipole approximation approach, and the metal permittivity is described by the Drude model. Complex mode dispersion diagrams, the figure of merit and effective refractive index versus frequency are shown and compared with those obtained with Maxwell Garnett homogenization theory. Comparison with effective permittivity retrieved by scattering parameters of finite-thickness structures will be shown during the presentation.

08:40         B06.3  HOMOGENIZATION OF A NONLOCAL ELECTROSTATIC EQUATION

N. Wellander1,2;  1Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Linkoping, Sweden; 2Lund University, Lund, Sweden

We find the effective (homogenized) properties of a composite (a heterogeneous material) supplied with spatially non-local constitutive relations. We homogenize an electrostatic equation in a periodic setting. The current density is given as a spatial convolution of the electric field with a conductivity kernel. It turns out that the homogenized equation also has a nonlocal constitutive relation if we do not scale the non-localness. However, if we decrease the neighborhood which influence the current density simultaneously as we make the fine structure scale finer and finer then we obtain a constitutive relation which is local.

09:00         B06.4  TRANSFORMATION MEDIA FOR FINITE ELEMENT SOLUTION OF MULTI-SCALE ELECTROMAGNETIC BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS

M. Kuzuoglu, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey;  O. Ozgun, Middle East Technical University - Northern Cyprus Campus, Mersin, Turkey  

We present coordinate transformation techniques for solving multi-scale electromagnetic boundary value problems involving fine geometrical features. The purpose is to eliminate fine mesh and to allow uniform and easy-to-generate meshes in the finite element solution of multi-scale problems by introducing metamaterial regions into the computational domain. The approaches are based on the form-invariance property of Maxwells equations. The medium where the coordinate transformation is applied is equivalent to an anisotropic medium whose constitutive parameters are determined by the Jacobian of the transformation. Several numerical simulations are illustrated in the context of electromagnetic scattering problems.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         B06.5  SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN A PARALLEL PLATE WAVEGUIDE - FIRST RESULTS

C. Larsson1,2, S. Esen Bayer1,3, M. Gustafsson1, G. Kristensson1, D. Sjoberg1, C. Sohl1, I. Vakili1;  1Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2Saab Dynamics, Linkoping, Sweden; 3Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey

This paper describes a parallel plate waveguide for scattering and material measurements. The setup can for certain scatterers be considered as a 2D radar cross section (RCS) range. Measurements on metallic circular cylinders are performed, and the forward RCS and the extinction cross section are determined. Two different calibration methods are used, and it is found that the method employing a calibration object is the most accurate. It is concluded that the 2D RCS in the forward direction can be measured with +-1 dB accuracy at the 10 cm level and with +-3 dB accuracy at the 1 cm level.

10:00         B06.6  ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELD DYADIC GREENS FUNCTIONS AND DEPOLARIZING DYAD FOR A MAGNETIC CURRENT IMMERSED IN A UNIAXIAL DIELECTRIC-FILLED PARALLEL PLATE WAVEGUIDE

M. J. Havrilla, Air Force Institute of Technology, WPAFB, OH, United States

The principal and reflected electric and magnetic field dyadic Greens functions for a magnetically-excited PEC parallel-plate waveguide filled with a uniaxial dielectric are derived. It is shown that the source maintains TEz and TMz field sets that don't couple at the PEC boundaries. A relatively simple formulation for computing the magnetic field Greens function is developed. A Leibnitz rule methodology for computing the depolarizing dyad is also presented, resulting in Greens functions that are valid outside and inside the source region. Future research involving these Greens functions in characterizing uniaxial materials is discussed.

10:20         B06.7  ACHERS CONSTRAINT ON THE HIGH-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC PERFORMANCE OF COMPOSITES

K. N. Rozanov, ITAE, Moscow, Russian Federation

The paper generalizes the results available from the literature on the constraint on the high-frequency permeability of magnetic composites, with the stress made on the opportunities for obtaining of materials with high microwave permeability. The rigorous derivation is presented of the integral constraint on the permeability. A simple estimation of the effect of eddy currents is given. The applicability limits and opportunities to over-come the constraint are discussed. That the constraint is believed to be invalid in flake particles with hard mag-netic axis perpendicular to the flake plane and in tiny magnetic particles possessing exchange resonance modes.

10:40          End of the Session

CBD – Vehicular Communications

Session Chair: Alain Sibille

Session     CBD

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-09:20

Room        Dolmabahçe A

08:00         CBD.1  PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE TUNNEL MEASUREMENTS AT 5.9 GHZ

V. Shivaldova1, G. Maier1, D. Smely2, N. Czink3, A. Paier3, C. F. Mecklenbraeuker1;  1Institute of Telecommunications, Vienna, Austria; 2Telecommunications Research Center Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 3Kapsch TrafficCom, Vienna, Austria

In this contribution, we discuss and analyze results from real-world performance measurements for IEEE 802.11p along motorway A22 near Vienna, Austria. More specifically, we evaluate the frame success ratio and goodput of the IEEE 802.11p physical layer for a vehicle-to-vehicle scenario in a tunnel. We report and discuss the observed frame success ratios and goodputs for radio channels between the transmit and the receive antenna with and without a line-of-sight component, and investigate the impact of the propagation environment and the traffic situation inside the tunnel.

08:20         CBD.2  ADAPTIVE MIMO ALGORITHMS FOR TRAIN-TO-WAYSIDE TRANSMISSIONS IN TUNNELS

C. Nsiala-nzeza1, Y. Cocheril1, B. Vrigneau2, C. Langlais3, M. Berbineau1;  1IFSTTAR, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France; 2Universit de Poitiers, Poitiers, France; 3Institut Telecom-Telecom Bretagne, BREST, France

This paper presents enhancements of train-to-wayside transmission systems, based on MIMO with and without channel state information at transmitter to increase performance without increasing the number of modems and power. The channel in tunnel with a masking train is modeled with the Kronecker model obtained with a 3D ray tracing tool. The MIMO schemes considered are: SM, STBC, max-dmin and P-OSM at 5.8 GHz with a targeted Frame Error Rate of 3.10-2 for a frame length of 100 bytes. They are compared in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) versus spectral efficiency.

08:40         CBD.3  DISTRIBUTED MIMO INTERFERENCE ALIGNMENT IN PRACTICAL WIRELESS SYSTEMS

G. W. K. Colman, T. J. Willink, Communications Research Centre Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

In order for interference alignment (IA) techniques to be implemented in future generation mobile multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications systems, they must be shown to be robust to system limitations such as quantisation and delay. Current IA algorithms in the literature assume global and instantaneous channel knowledge. In this paper, a novel IA algorithm is proposed which uses limited feedback and local channel information. Simulations using realistic channel models show that this algorithm can provide viable communications in the overloaded MIMO interference channel.

09:00          End of the Session

DB2 – Plasmonics

Session Chairs: Frédérique de Fornel, Nader Engheta

Session     DB2

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Dolmabahçe B

08:00         DB2.1  NANOPLASMONICS: NEW DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR NANOSCALE OPTICAL CAVITIES

A. Fernandez Dominguez, S. A. Maier, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

The design of nanoplasmonic cavities exploiting coherent processes such as sub- and superradiance as well as Fano-type interactions will be discussed. In such cavities, interactions between bright and dark localized plasmon modes lead to a complex mode spectrum, which can be visualized using electron energy loss spectroscopy. First implementations fabricated using electron beam lithography will be presented. Furthermore, it will be shown how the concept of transformation optics can be utilized for the design of nanoresonators with a broadband absorption spectrum, showing high promise for light harvesting over the whole visible and infrared range of the spectrum.

08:20         DB2.2  ACTIVE PLASMONICS

A. V. Zayats, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

We will discuss various plasmonic approaches for controlling photonic signals on subwavelength scales. Plasmonic crystals, plasmonic waveguiding components as well a new plasmonic platform based on metamaterials will be presented. Particular emphasis will be given to achieving active functionalities using various control stimuli such as electronic and magnetic fields and all-optically. Amplification of plasmonic signals and dispersion management will also be addressed. Active and tuneable plasmonic components are required for development of integrated photonic circuits, in high-density data storage as well as bio- and chemo-sensing lab-on-a-chip systems, to name a few.

08:40         DB2.3  NONLINEAR PLASMONICS

F. Capasso, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States

Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SSPs) can achieve concentration of light into sub-wavelength regions thus opening up rich new directions in physical optics and photonics. We present experiments on plasmonic nanocavities patterned on the surface of metals and semiconductors and designed to concentrate light in nanoscale volumes. This has led us to the observation of large enhancements of nonlinear optical phenomena such as four wave mixing in gold.

09:00         DB2.4  CONTROLLING SINGLE-MOLECULE EMISSION WITH DIELECTRIC AND PLASMONIC ANTENNAS

V. Sandoghdar, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen, Germany

Modification of the radiative properties of atoms has been an exciting topic of research in quantum optics for about three decades. While the usual approaches to this problem have used microcavities for molding the available modes, more recent developments have exploited the concept of antennas in the near field. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of our theoretical and experimental achievements in inducing directed emission by single molecules and enhancing their spontaneous emission rates. We will also discuss future prospects of this line of research and its applications

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         DB2.5  DIAMOND NANOPARTICLES AS SURFACE-PLASMON LAUNCHERS: TOWARDS A DETERMINISTIC QUANTUM PLASMONICS

S. Huant, A. Cuche, O. Mollet, A. Drezet, Institut Neel/ CNRS & UJF Grenoble, Grenoble, France

A nanodiamond hosting two NV centers is attached to the apex of an optical fiber-tip and illuminated by a laser light guided by the fiber itself. Gold films are dipped into the optical near field of this tip. The fluorescence light generated by the NVs launches surface plasmons that are imaged by near-field microscopy. Since the nanodiamond is a quasi single-photon source, we argue that single surface plasmons form the experimental images. This is a first step towards a deterministic quantum plasmonics where quantum plasmons can be launched at any freely chosen position in a plasmonic receptacle.

10:00         DB2.6  INTEGRATED PLASMONIC SYSTEMS FOR ULTRASENSITIVE SPECTROSCOPY AND BIODETECTION

H. Altug, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. Aksu, A. E. Çetin, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA

Plasmonics, by localizing light to the sub-wavelength volumes and dramatically enhancing local fields, is enabling myriad of exciting opportunities for construction of novel photonic devices and integrated nanophotonic systems. In this talk, I will present our recent work on integrated on-chip plasmonics, nanofluidics, and metamaterials and their applications in ultrasensitive spectroscopy and biodetection.

10:20         DB2.7  FROM NEAR-FIELD TO FAR-FIELD: RADIATIVE COUPLING OF PARTICLE PLASMON RESONANCES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRIES

R. Taubert, H. Giessen, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

We demonstrate superradiant-like eects in a three-dimensional arrangement of particle plasmonic oscillators at Bragg distance. In a Bragg-stacked multilayer structure we observe the formation of a very broad photonic band gap that spans almost one octave in the optical frequency range.

10:40          End of the Session

E05 – Spectrum Management

Session Chairs: Terje Tjelta, R. Struzak

Session     E05

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Galata

08:00         E05.1  PHYSICAL, TECHNICAL, PRACTICAL, ECONOMICAL, AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT

T. Tjelta, Telenor, Fornebu, Norway;  R. Struzak, National Institue of Telecommunications, Wroclaw, Poland  

The radio spectrum is a highly value resource that call for efficient utilisation. This includes robust interference tolerant radio equipment and cost-effective spectrum management regimes. The pressure on suitable spectrum is high, particularly for mobile data services. The management at all levels meets new challenges: either it is traditional command and control methods or liberalised market mechanisms. Spectrum for specified radio services and systems is challenged by free utilisation of spectrum commons. The way forward is an evolutionary path where laws of physics must be respected, but advance technology allowed and more flexible regulatory regimes put into work.

08:20         E05.2  SPECTRUM CONSIDERATIONS FOR GLOBAL BROADBAND ACCESS

C. Langtry, International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland

ITU plays a leading role in establishing the standards and spectrum arrangements for the current IMT-2000 (3G) systems and for IMT-Advanced, which provides the global platform for the next generations of mobile broadband services. It is now timely to review the initial forecasts of spectrum requirements that were made and to assess what further actions may be required to realize global mobile broadbands vast potential to connect the world. This review is being addressed in the ITU-Rs Study Group and Conference activities.

08:40         E05.3  FLEXIBLE SPECTRUM USAGE FOR THE FUTURE BROADBAND MOBILE AND FIXED CONVERGENCE

L. Sun, Huawei, Beijing, China

To meet the tremendous increase of user ever-increasing demands of on the global market, it is necessary to find more available spectrum resources for the future broadband mobile and fixed convergence. Under the current circumstance, it is more important to strengthen sharing broadband applications with other radio services. Instead of only calculating the deficiency of resources, we need to try to find a solution through spectrum sharing with other services. we provide two solutions of flexible spectrum usage for the mobile broadband applications, from the operational and regulatory perspective.

09:00         E05.4  PERSPECTIVES AND PROBLEMS OF OPPORTUNISTIC AND DYNAMIC SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT

M. R. Fitch, BT, Martlesham Heath, United Kingdom

Changes in regulation are allowing secondary users to share spectrum with primary users, for free subject to the condition that they do not interfere with the primary users. Cognitive Radio (CR) is an enabling technology that allows such sharing. It opens the way for opportunistic and dynamic spectrum management, where wireless equipment is required to interface with cognitive algorithms, sensing mechanisms and databases. The paper discusses the challenges and opportunities that arise with such spectrum management.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         E05.5  OPPORTUNISTIC SECONDARY SPECTRUM ACCESS - OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS

J. Zander, K. W. Sung, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden

Dynamic spectrum sharing technique (Cognitive Radio) where secondary users opportunistically utilize temporarily or locally unused spectrum has emerged as a promising technology to relieve the perceived spectrum shortage. The QUASAR project aims at a realistic assessment of the amount of spectrum available for secondary use. Result show that it's fundamentally difficult to reliably determine which part of the spectrum is available, which leads to large safety margins consequently to poor spectrum utilization. Further, future business success depends on the scalability of the secondary access techniques. Also, the vast majorities of spectrum opportunities defy common models for spectrum trading

10:00         E05.6  CONSERVATION OF SPECTRUM FOR SCIENTIFIC SERVICES,- THE RADIO ASTRONOMICAL PERSPECTIVE

A. Jessner, Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn, Germany

Scientific services are indispensable for a technical society, but by their nature they have more stringent protection requirements. These have also changed in the new digital era. Scientific services are efficient in their use of allocated bandwidth and utilise the highest possible detection sensitivity, but any detectable man-made signal in their band jeopardizes their operation. There is no free choice of frequencies, these are given by natural molecular transition frequencies. As a consequence, only the scrupulous regulatory protection of core frequencies for science can ensure the viability of scientific use of radio spectrum for the benefit of all.

10:20         E05.7  MITIGATION OF EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE ON AN EGSM NETWORK

T. U. Haq, wi-tribe, Islamabad, Pakistan;  A. Iqbal, wi-tribe, Lahore, Pakistan  

Wireless Technologies are being used extensively for telecommunication services, increasing possibility of inter-system interference. Interference management becomes a challenge if same spectrum is allocated to different network operators in neighboring countries. ITU and Regional Regulatory bodies provide guidelines for coordinated spectrum allocations across international borders; however, some scenarios are not addressed. One such problem is faced by an EGSM operator in Pakistan which is facing interference from CDMA operators in India. Coordinated frequency planning is not possible in this cross-technology interference scenario. This paper describes analysis and mitigation of the unique interference problem of the Pakistani EGSM operator.

10:40          End of the Session

F05 – Radar Applications: Polarimetric Interferometry, Smart Systems and Propagation Impairment

Session Chairs: Alberto Moreira, Eric Pottier

Session     F05

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Haliç

08:00         F05.1  SUBSURFACE TOPOGRAPHY MAPPING IN DESERTS USING TWO FREQUENCY SAR INTERFEROMETRY

K. Sarabandi, A. Elsherbini, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States

The progress in the development of a new two frequency InSAR system for mapping the subsurface topography in deserts and arid regions is presented. The proposed system consists of a Ka-InSAR for mapping the top interface topography and a VHF-InSAR for mapping the subsurface topography. The required modifications in conventional InSAR inversion to allow for height estimation in the presence of the top layer are then presented. Some of the image distortions that occur in the SAR images are also presented. Scaled model measurements were performed to verify the operation of the proposed system.

08:20         F05.2  MILLIMETER-WAVE GROUND BASED SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR MEASUREMENTS

E. Yigit1, A. Unal2, A. Kaya2, S. Demirci1, H. Cetinkaya2, C. Ozdemir1, A. Vertiy2;  1Institute of Applied Sciences, Mersin, Turkey; 2Material Institute, Kocaeli, Turkey

In this study, applications of millimeter wave ground based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) experiments are studied. GB-SAR setup is constructed and measurements of different objects are carried out in the semi-anechoic chamber room. Measurements from targets at the millimeter wave regions are collected by the newly constructed measurement setup. Also, real SAR measurement from metal targets is taken. Then, the millimeter wave GB-SAR images are reconstructed by using a matched filtering type algorithm and the performance of the setup is quantified from the resultant images by evaluating the accuracy and quality metrics.

08:40         F05.3  ESTIMATING AMBIGUITY NUMBER OF RADIAL VELOCITY FOR GROUND MOVING TARGETS FROM A SINGLE SAR SENSOR

S. Zhu, G. Liao, Xidian University, xi'an, China

This paper addresses an ambiguity number estimation approach of cross-track velocity for ground moving targets from a single synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor. We first transform the target signatures into range frequency domain and then compress it for each range frequency. The resulting compressed envelope exhibits a straight line with its slope just proportional to the ambiguity number of the induced Doppler centroid. The true radial velocity can be completely retrieved. For dim moving targets, an improved estimation strategy is introduced. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by the theoretical analysis and real measured SAR data

09:00         F05.4  DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN AUTOMATIC CRUISE CONTROL RADAR FOR SMART VEHICLE

S. Bera, D. Bhaskar, R. Bera, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Rangpo, Sikkim, India

Smart vehicles are evolving for collision avoidance after the success stories of airborne SAR for air traffic detection and control. Efforts for the development of such vehicular radar using spread spectrum waveform are attempted by authors. Model based design and simulation of the radar system along with target modeling and ISAR imaging are successfully completed. Baseband and IF portion of the radar model are realized by uploaded and downloaded to Arbitrary waveform generator and Vector signal generator respectively. The total radar system with ISAR Imaging are successfully tested at the open range of the authors premises with multiple standard targets.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         F05.5  GENERALIZED ISAR IMAGING OF SEA TARGET

A. D. Lazarov, Burgas Free University, Burgas, Bulgaria

A GISAR approach to solve SAR problem for ship target imaging is considered. Definition of three dimensional SAR scenario is suggested. Analytical geometrical approach to define apparent Yaw, Pitch and Roll angle of a ship target at sea is implemented. The target is presented as an assembly of point scatterers. Mathematical expressions to calculate distance to each point scatterer are derived. SAR signal model based on a linear frequency modulated signal and reflectivity function of the target is derived. Image reconstruction includes Fourier range and azimuth compressions. To verify GISAR models and image reconstruction concept a numerical experiment is performed.

10:00         F05.6  INFERENCE OF SPATIAL CORRELATION CHARACTERISTICS OF RAINFALL INTENSITY FROM THE DATA OF SATELLITE-BORNE PRECIPITATION RADAR AND GROUND-BASED RAIN GAUGES

T. Manabe, R. Jozaki, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan

Spatial correlation characteristics of rainfall are crucial in predicting rain attenuation statistics for wireless links above 10 GHz. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the spatial correlation characteristics of rainfall from the data measured by a satellite-borne radar and a ground-based raingauge. By applying this method to the data measured by the Precipitation Radar aboard the TRMM satellite and those of ground-based raingauges provided by Japan Meteorological Agency, estimated spatial correlation characteristics are found to be consistent with those reported in literatures around Tokyo and to show regional dependence in central and western Japan.

10:20         F05.7  SOUNDING SIGNALS LIBRARY FOR RECONFIGURABLE POLARIMETRIC FM-CW RADAR PARSAX

G. Babur, O. Krasnov, A. Yarovoy, TU Delft, Delft, Netherlands

Diversity of sounding signal waveforms for polarimetric FM-CW radar is studied. Each signal represents a pair of mutually orthogonal wavelets which can be transmitted via two orthogonal polarizations. The signals compose a waveform library which has been implemented in the operational polarimetric software-defined radar PARSAX. This paper presents a sounding signals library for polarimetric FM-CW radar. All the considered in this paper waveforms have been implemented in the operating polarimetric radar (in its FM-CW mode), namely in the PARSAX radar system developed in Delft, The Netherlands.

10:40          End of the Session

G05 – New Science Initiatives on Irregularities and Scintillation using Beacon Satellites

Session Chairs: Patricia Doherty, Paul Bernhardt

Session     G05

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Topkapi A

08:00         G05.1  THE TANDEM INSTRUMENTED CUBESATS EXPERIMENT (TICE) IN LOW EARTH ORBIT FOR CONTINUOUS OCCULTATION OBSERVATIONS OF THE IONOSPHERE

P. A. Bernhardt, C. L. Siefring, J. D. Huba, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, United States;  J. Abrams, S. Miller, ARES Corporation, Torance, CA, United States;  N. Voronka, Tethers Unlimited Inc, Bothwell, WA, Unites States  

A new concept, called the Tandem Instrumented CubeSats Experiment (TICE), has been developed using a pair of cubeSats orbiting in tandem in an a common orbit plane. With a ~4000 km range between the satellites, the propagation path will have constant tangent height around 80 km altitude well below the E- and F-layer ionospheres. The radio link between the transmitter CubeSat and receiver cubesat will be continuous so that there will be no data gaps in the ionospheric measurements. Ionospheric irregularities will be triangulated from the tandem satellite observations to provide both location and scintillation strength.

08:20         G05.2  EQUATORIAL SCINTILLATION PREDICTIONS FROM C/NOFS PLANAR LANGMUIR PROBE ELECTRON DENSITY FLUCTUATION DATA

E. Costa, CETUC PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;  E. R. de Paula, L. F. C. de Rezende, DAE/INPE, So Jos dos Campos SP, Brazil;  K. M. Groves, P. A. Roddy, AFRL, Hanscom AFB MA, USA  

Data from the Planar Langmuir Probe onboard Communication/ Navigation Outage Forecasting System will be combined with coherent scatter radar and scintillation measurements to analyze the performance of different propagation models of satellite signals. This work characterizes: (i) the prediction capability of a purely space-based phase-screen scintillation model in comparison with another that represents the variation of the irregularity strength along ray paths in detail; and (ii) how early in time it is possible to detect irregularity structures, estimate their temporal and spatial evolution and predict their effects on propagation through different ionospheric regions at later instants of time.

08:40         G05.3  C/NOFS IN SITU AND BEACON MEASUREMENTS DURING THE MAIN PHASE OF THE FIRST MAGNETIC STORMS WITHIN SOLAR CYCLE 24

S. Basu1, S. Basu1, E. Costa2, E. MacKenzie1;  1Boston College, Arlington, VA, United States; 2PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

The study utilizes the high resolution PLP and the beacon on the C/NOFS satellite to determine the impact on the equatorial ionosphere of two moderate magnetic storms during solar cycle 24. These two storms perturb various SCINDA sites at dusk. The in-situ C/NOFS data allows the tracking of the plasma bubbles on a global scale. The spectral analysis of the PLP data shows interesting variation in the spectral shapes depending on its location with respect to the bubbles. Current analysis is ongoing to determine the impact of the spectral shapes on UHF scintillations from C/NOFS.

09:00         G05.4  GNU RADIO BEACON RECEIVER (GRBR) OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE-SCALE WAVE STRUCTURE (LSWS) AND EQUATORIAL SPREAD F (ESF)

S. V. Thampi1, M. Yamamoto2, R. Tsunoda3, L. Jose1, T. K. Pant1;  1Space Physics Laboratory, VSSC, Trivandrum, India; 2RISH, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 3SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, CA, USA

GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) is a new digital receiver based on GNU Radio and USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) [Yamamoto, 2008]. In this paper, the GRBR observations of large-scale wave structure (LSWS) and the subsequent development of equatorial spread F (ESF) using total electron content (TEC) derived from the ground based reception of signals from the radio beacon on board C/NOFS (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite are presented. The other evidences of LSWS include the satellite traces observed in ionograms. These observations show that LSWS appears to play an important role in the development of ESF.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         G05.5  GLOBAL S4 INDEX OBSERVED BY FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC DURING 2006-2011

J. Y. Liu1,2, S. P. Chen1, C. Y. Chen1, G. S. Chang2, C. H. Lin3, G. Uma4;  1National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan; 2National Space Organization, Hsinchu, Taiwan; 3Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 4KL University, Vaddeswaram, India

The global FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC S4 index are subdivided and examined in various latitudes, longitudes, altitudes, and seasons. The F-region scintillations in the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere start around post-sunset period and often persist till post-midnight hours during the March and September equinox as well as December Solstice seasons. The E-region scintillations reveal a clear solar zenith effect and yield pronounced intensities in mid-latitudes during the Summer Solstice seasons, which are well correlated with occurrences of the sporadic E-layer. There is no obvious scintillation activity observed in the high-latitude ionosphere.

10:00         G05.6  SCINTILLATIONS ON LEO POLAR ORBITING BEACON SIGNALS IN PRESENCE OF SPORADIC E LAYERS RECORDED BY EISCAT

B. Forte, Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy / University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom;  E. Turunen, I. Haggstrom, EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden  

Ionospheric plasma density irregularities may cause rapid fluctuations in the intensity and phase of radio waves propagating through. Usually, scintillation events are modelled in the diffractive scattering approach which is valid for weak scattering conditions. Strong scintillation events are better modelled in the refractive scattering approach, which includes weak scattering conditions. Two EISCAT measurement campaigns were set up in order to calculate all those parameters useful for numerical modelling of scintillation events. The radar measurement results are compared with transionospheric radio signals at VHF, UHF, and L band in order to understand the feasibility and appropriateness of the two approaches.

10:20         G05.7  INVESTIGATION OF TEC VARIATION AND IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATION AT THE TWO HEMISPHERES OVER THE POLAR REGION USING GPS MEASUREMENTS

R. M. Das, S. Yadav, R. S. Dabas, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India;  S. Saini, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Goa, India;  A. K. Gwal, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, India  

The main of the presented work is to investigate the generation of polar plasma patches and ionospheric scintillations over Maitri, Antarctica [70.43N, 11.43E] and Himadri, Arctic [78.55N, 11.56E]. To explore the difference between the behaviour of day and nighttime polar region ionosphere, the data during June-July 2008 have been used. The results show that the ionospheric irregularities were observed at both the stations and it is seen that the scintillation are associated with these patches. The irregularities caused strong Total Electron Content fluctuations which are horizontally drifted from east to west

10:40          End of the Session

HG1 – Radio Sounding in Ionospheres and Magnetospheres and Associated Plasma Phenomena I

Session Chairs: Robert Benson, Bodo Reinisch, Gordon James, Vikas Sonwalkar

Session     HG1

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Topkapi B

08:00         HG1.1  RADIO SOUNDING FROM IMAGE: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON FIELD ALIGNED DENSITY IRREGULARITIES, Z AND WHISTLER MODE DIAGNOSTICS, AND PROTON CYCLOTRON HARMONIC ECHOES, PART 1

D. L. Carpenter, T. F. Bell, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States;  V. S. Sonwalkar, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, United States  

The wide operating frequency range of the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) instrument on the IMAGE satellite made possible wave injection in the whistler-mode and Z-mode domains as well as free-space O and X mode sounding. We review new findings in four areas: (i) density irregularities in the PBL and within the plasmasphere; (ii) upward Z-mode probing along geomagnetic field lines; (iii) downward probing from 4500-7000 km altitude using whistler-mode waves that undergo two fundamentally different types of reflection; (iv) strong coupling of RPI pulses to the proton plasma in the vicinity of the spacecraft.

08:20         HG1.2  RADIO SOUNDING FROM IMAGE: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON FIELD ALIGNED DENSITY IRREGULARITIES, Z AND WHISTLER MODE DIAGNOSTICS, AND PROTON CYCLOTRON HARMONIC ECHOES, PART 2

D. L. Carpenter, T. F. Bell, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States;  V. S. Sonwalkar, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, United States  

The wide operating frequency range of the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) instrument on the IMAGE satellite made possible wave injection in the whistler-mode and Z-mode domains as well as free-space O and X mode sounding. We review new findings in four areas: (i) density irregularities in the PBL and within the plasmasphere; (ii) upward Z-mode probing along geomagnetic field lines; (iii) downward probing from 4500-7000 km altitude using whistler-mode waves that undergo two fundamentally different types of reflection; (iv) strong coupling of RPI pulses to the proton plasma in the vicinity of the spacecraft.

08:40         HG1.3  WHISTLER MODE RADIO SOUNDING FROM THE RPI INSTRUMENT ON THE IMAGE SATELLITE

V. S. Sonwalkar1, A. Reddy1, D. L. Carpenter2, R. Proddaturi1, S. Hazra1, K. Mayank1, B. W. Reinisch3;  1University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States; 2Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States; 3University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, United States

Whistler mode (WM) sounding experiments from the RPI instrument on IMAGE have led to the observations of magnetospherically reflected (MR), specularly reflected (SR), and back scattered (BS) echoes. The observed dispersion of MR and SR echoes is used to infer the electron density, ion effective mass, and the ion composition along the geomagnetic field line, including the important transition region from the O+ dominated ionosphere to the H+ regime above. The observed spread in time delays of echoes is used to determine the scale sizes (10 m -100 km) and locations of field aligned irregularities along WM echo paths.

09:00         HG1.4  SPECTRAL INTERPRETATION OF RADIO-SOUNDER-STIMULATED MAGNETOSPHERIC PLASMA RESONANCES IN TERMS OF KAPPA DISTRIBUTIONS

R. F. Benson, A. F. Vias, J. Fainberg, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States;  V. A. Osherovich, CUA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States;  C. M. Purser, UMBC/GEST/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, United States;  I. A. Galkin, B. W. Reinisch, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts, United States  

Magnetosphere sounders stimulate plasma resonances between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency and above the upper-hybrid frequency. More than three decades ago they were recognized as equivalent to ionospheric topside-sounder-stimulated resonances, designated as Qn resonances a decade earlier, with one important difference: the magnetospheric Qn frequencies often indicated that the background electron-velocity distribution was non-Maxwellian. Interpretations based on bi-Maxwellian and kappa distributions have been proposed. Here we expand on the latter, which requires fewer free parameters, by comparing kappa-derived Qn frequencies with observations from the Radio Plasma Imager on the IMAGE satellite.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         HG1.5  DAYTIME VLF MODELING OVER LAND AND SEA, COMPARISON WITH DATA FROM DEMETER SATELLITE

S. G. Meyer1,2, A. B. Collier1,2, C. J. Rodger3;  1Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, Hermanus, South Africa; 2University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 3University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

A model based on Wait's mode theory and ionospheric parameters is developed to investigate subionospheric VLF wave propagation. Although the bulk of VLF energy reflects off the lower ionosphere, a small portion leaks into space. This leaves a fingerprint of the modal interference pattern. This pattern can be detected by spacecraft and is a good method of observing the field's spatial variation and the effects of different propagation conditions. Simulations are compared to averaged data taken over a year from the DEMETER satellite over the NWC transmitter.

10:00         HG1.6  REFRACTIVE INDEX OF SPHERICAL WAVES IN MAGNETOPLASMA

X. Huang1, B. W. Reinisch1,2;  1University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, United States; 2Lowell Digisonde International, Lowell, MA, United States

The electromagnetic field excited by an arbitrary current source embedded in a uniform cold magneto-plasma is investigated in this paper. The Greens function method for solving the radiation equation is used, and the solutions we obtained are valid for any cold plasma parameters. There are always two wave modes excited, and in the far field each mode is a spherical wave. A refractive index of spherical waves is introduced to describe the propagation. The properties of these excited spherical waves are discussed in this paper.

10:20         HG1.7  A NEW TYPE MULTI-FUNCTION IONOSPHERIC SOUNDING SYSTEM

G. Yang, Z. Zhao, C. Zhou, Y. Zhang, G. Chen, Y. Hu, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

This paper introduces a new type Multi-Function Ionospheric Sounding System (MFISS), which bases on the PXI bus. The capabilities of ionospheric vertical sounding, ionospheric oblique sounding and ionospheric oblique backscattering sounding were integrated in a single MFISS, it overcomes the disadvantages of the original ionospheric sounding equipments which have the feature with less function, limited coverage, less obtaining parameters, it also can achieve the function of acquiring the omnibearing geophysical characteristics, the ionosphere channel propagation characteristics and the radio environment characteristics.

10:40          End of the Session

J05 – Sun and Solar System Science

Session Chairs: Pierre Kaufman, Noah Brosch

Session     J05

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:20

Room        Marmara

08:00         J05.1  MUSAR A NOVEL SAR MISSION TO VENUS

D. G. Blumberg, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel;  J. Cohen, NASA, California, U.S.A;  S. Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Huston, U.S.A;  O. Lapid, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel;  R. Greeley, Arizona State University, Arizona, U.S.A  

The science community is currently considering new missions to explore Venus, focusing on key measurements that will answer the major outstanding questions for Venus that will remain after the current Venus Express mission. A new lightweight X-band SAR mission is being proposed as a Discovery class mission to Venus. This mission will utilize an X-band synthetic aperture radar capable of acquiring imagery at high (~1 m) resolutions for specifically targeted sites. The sensor is based on the Israel Aerospace Industry (IAI) TecSAR sensor that is already orbiting Earth and acquiring spectacular images.

08:20         J05.2  THE UNUSUAL SOLAR CYCLE 23: THE VANISHING SOLAR WIND, ITS CAUSE AND IMPACT

P. Janardhan, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India;  S. Ananthakrishnan, Pune University, Pune, India  

Solar cycle 23 was very unusual, in many ways, with polar magnetic fields showing a steady decline throughout the cycle and with the sunspot minimum being the deepest that we have experienced in a century. Apart from this cycle 23 had several instances when the solar wind apparently ``disappeared" for periods exceeding 24 hours. We examine these solar wind disappearance events which correspond to density decreases, at 1 AU, by over two orders of magnitude for extended periods of time and show that these events, though not associated with explosive solar phenomena, produce observable space weather effects at 1 AU.

08:40         J05.3  SOLAR PHYSICS AT NANCAY RADIO OBSERVATORY (FRANCE) : RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

K.-L. Klein, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France

The Nancay station of Paris Observatory operates two key instruments for solar physics: the Decametre Array (dynamic spectra, 20-70 MHz) and the Radioheliograph (images in the 150-450 MHz range). A new spectrograph (130-1000 MHz) is under construction for scientific and space weather purposes. This contribution summarises performances of the instruments and illustrates recent results on the quiet Sun, quasi-continuous particle acceleration in active regions (noise storms) and coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle events. Such observations will be an essential support in future investigations of the Sun-Heliosphere connection with Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe.

09:00         J05.4  THE RADIOSICENCE EXPERIMENT ON NEW HORIZONS

I. R. Linscott1, M. K. Bird2, D. P. Hinson3, M. Paetzold2, L. Tyler1;  1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States; 2University of Cologne, Koln, Germany; 3SETI Institute, Mouintain View,CA, United States

REX is the Radioscience Experiment in the payload on the New Horizons spacecraft en-route to its encounter with Pluto in July of 2015. REX will obtain the temperature and pressure profiles of Pluto's tenuous atmosphere while measuring radiometric temperature, gravitational moment and ionosphere density. For all but the radiometry, these measurements take advantage of a high power, X-band uplink transmitted from the earth, received on the spacecraft with an ultrastable oscillator as a frequency reference. This combination enables REX to sense Pluto's atmosphere with precision of <0.1 Pa (1 microbar), and <3 K.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         J05.5  SOLAR SYSTEM STUDIES WITH THE ARECIBO PLANETARY RADAR SYSTEM

D. B. Campbell, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States;  J. K. Harmon, M. C. Nolan, Cornell University, Arecibo, Puerto Rico  

The 305 m Arecibo telescope equipped with a 1 MW 2.38 GHz transmitter is used for studies of the terrestrial planets, planetary satellites including the Moon and small bodies in the solar system. Much of the recent program emphasis has been on astrometric and characterization observations of near-Earth objects for which the Arecibo radar system has capabilities not matched by any other Earth-based telescope. However, studies of the surfaces of Mercury, the Moon and Mars continue and renewed observations of Venus are planned.

10:00         J05.6  PROGRESS ON CHINESE SPECTRAL RADIOHELIOGRAPHCSRH CONSTRUCTION

Y. Yan1, J. Zhang2, Z. Chen1, W. Wang1, F. Liu1, L. Geng1;  1National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; 2Peking University, Beijing, China

The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with 40 antennas of 4.5 m covering 400 MHz 2 GHz (CSRH-I) and 60 antennas of 2 m covering 2-15 GHz (CSRH-II) has been supported and is under construction in a radio quiet region in Inner Mongolia of China. The array of CSRH-I has been assembled and is tested now. The array of CSRH-II will be established during 2011-2013. The progress about the project is introduced.

10:20          End of the Session

K04 – Biomedical Applications: Diagnostic Sensing

Session Chairs: James Lin, Jan Vrba

Session     K04

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 08:00-10:40

Room        Loft

08:00         K04.1  WIRELESS SENSING AND MONITORING OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MOVEMENTS AND VOLUME CHANGES

J. C. Lin, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, United States

There has been growing interest in the use of low-power wireless technology for contact and remote detection and monitoring of physiological movements and volume changes. Remote or non-contact sensing of body movements associated with the expansion and contraction of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Wireless techniques provide an approach for detecting physiological and pathological movements and volume changes without compromising the integrity of the physiological substrates. Non-invasive measurements can provide sensing and monitoring for apex cardiograms, respiration rate, peripheral blood pulse wave, pressure pulse characteristics, arterial wall movement, and life sign (heart rate and respiration rate) detection.

08:20         K04.2  DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF ULTRA WIDE-BAND IMPLANT ANTENNA FOR BIOTELEMETRY SYSTEMS

F. Zengin1, E. Akkaya2, B. Turetken2, S. E. San1;  1Gebze Institute of Technology/Turkey, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey; 2TUBITAK BILGEM - UEKAE Antenna Test and Research Center (ATAM), Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey

The aim of this study is to design of a small size implantable antenna involving Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) (2.4 GHz-2.48 GHz) band. The goal of designing antenna is to obtain physiological information pertaining to person. Simulation measurements of antenna were obtained in body ambient by making the design of antenna with CST Studio Suite programme. Then, in vitro measurements were performed on antenna by making an artificial material, which shows electrical features of human skin tissue, to verify measurement results. Obtained measurement results and simulative results are in accordance.

08:40         K04.3  MICROWAVE IMAGING FOR MEDICAL DETECTIONS

G. G. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. A. Grzesik, Allwave Corporation, Torrance, CA, United States

We introduce an efficient microwave imaging technique for medical applications, especially suited for breast cancer detection. The imaging system consists of a fixed source for transmit on one end, and a planar receiving sensors on the other, with the target placed in between. The image of the internal organ tissue under examination is thus obtained across a three-dimensional region, based upon the data collected from these sensors, using our field mapping algorithm (FMA). Six test cases, including analytic examples, FDTD simulation runs, and hardware measurements, are given for verification, with promising results evident throughout.

09:00         K04.4  COMPACT RESONATORS FOR PERMITTIVITY RECONSTRUCTION OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

T. Yilmaz, Y. Hao, Queen Mary College, University of London, London, United Kingdom

In this paper, a patch resonator is proposed for non-invasive measurement of dielectric properties of biological tissues. Resonator is operating at 2.4 GHz when placed on tissue. The patch resonator is simulated in HFSS with four layered tissue mimicking material (skin, fat, blood, muscle) placed on top. The electrical properties of blood layer is decreased and the change in S parameters is tracked. Effective dielectric properties of the tissue is reconstructed from simulated S parameter response of the resonator.

09:20          Tea/Coffee Break

09:40         K04.5  BIORADAR FOR MONITORING OF HUMAN ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIES

L. Anishchenko1, A. Bugaev2, S. Ivashov1, A. Zhuravlev1;  1Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russian Federation; 2Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russian Federation

This paper sums up the results of bioradiolocation experiments dedicated to the monitoring of human adaptive capabilities, which were conducted at Remote Sensing Laboratory (Bauman Moscow State Technical University) during last two years. The main task of bioradiolocation is remote or non-contact measurement of movement, breathing and pulse parameters of biological objects behind an obstruction or in open space at some distance. This method can be used in sleep medicine, functional diagnostics, pharmacology, zoo-psychology, restorative medicine and disaster medicine. Description of the bioradar experimental procedure is given.

10:00         K04.6  THROUGHPUT OF OPTIMAL AND SUBOPTIMAL LOW-POWER IR-UWB COHERENT RECEIVERS FOR WIRELESS BODY-AREA-NETWORKS (WBANS)

H. A. Shaban, M. Abou El-Nasr, Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport (AASTMT), Alexandria, Egypt;  R. M. Buehrer, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA  

Impulse radio ultra wide band (IR-UWB) systems have the potential for low-power consumption as well as high data-rates over short distances. This makes them an attractive candidate for emerging wireless body-area-network (BAN) applications. In this paper, we investigate the performance of low-power suboptimal real sinusoidal-template based detectors for M-ary pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) and M-ary equally-correlated pulse-position-modulation M-ary (EC-PPM) modulation techniques in multipath channels. Furthermore, we provide numerical results in the UWB-based IEEE 802.15.6a channels, and evaluate the corresponding attainable throughput.

10:20         K04.7  GLUCOSE-DEPENDENT DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF BLOOD PLASMA

E. Topsakal, T. Karacolak, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA;  E. C. Moreland, Greenville Hospital System, Greenville, SC, USA  

In this study, we show a correlation between electrical properties (relative permittivity and conductivity) of blood plasma and plasma glucose concentration. In order to formulate that correlation, we performed electrical property measurements on blood samples collected from 10 adults between the ages of 18 and 40 at University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB) Children's hospital. The measurements are conducted between 500 MHz and 20 GHz band. Using the data obtained from measurements, we developed a single-pole Cole-Cole model for permittivity and conductivity as a function of plasma blood glucose concentration.

10:40          End of the Session

CT – Six-port Wave Correlator Theory and Practical Application to RF Network Analysis

Session Chair: Takashi Ohira

Session     CT

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 09:40-10:40

Room        Dolmabahçe A

09:40         CT.1  SIX-PORT WAVE CORRELATOR THEORY AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION TO RF NETWORK ANALYSIS

T. Yakabe, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan

This tutorial lecture is intended to introduce the basic concept and principle of the six-port wave correlator, and to present the latest advancements in its theory and techniques. The lecture starts with some fundamentals on the six-port reflectometer. Next, the concept is extended to a six-port wave correlator on which we focus from the viewpoint of establishing a new scheme for characterizing the S matrix. Finally, we explore some specific microwave applications of the six-port network. The lecture is full of interesting ideas and techniques for a variety of applications in microwave and millimeter-wave fields.

10:40          End of the Session

General Lecture 2

Session Chair: Michael Rietveld

Session     GL2

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 11:00-12:00

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

11:00         GL2.1  THE RADIO PHYSICS OF METEORS: HIGH RESOLUTION RADAR METHODS OFFERING NEW INSIGHTS

A. Pellinen-Wannberg, Umeå University and Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden

The introduction of the high-power large-aperture (HPLA) radar method has rejuvenated meteor radiophysics. Operating at much shorter wavelengths and with orders of magnitude higher power densities than meteor radars, HPLA radars record head echoes throughout the meteor region. Parameters like meteoroid orbital elements, astronomical origin, meteor velocity, deceleration, composition, fragmentation, breakup, echo polarization and plasma physics can be studied with unprecedented accuracy, often in microsecond time resolution, adding important new elements to our knowledge of the solar system dust population. The development from 1990 to the present will be reviewed and some recent breakthroughs highlighted.

12:00          End of the Session

AB2 - Antenna Measurement

Session Chair: William Davis

Session     AB2

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 13:40-17:20

Room        Dolmabahçe C

13:40         AB2.1  DESIGN OF WIDEBAND DUAL-POLARIZED MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS

J. S. Jeon, KT Mobile R&D Laboratory, Seoul, South Korea

This study investigates wideband dual-polarized microstrip antennas. These antennas are used to prevent deterioration of transmission quality caused by terminal interference or multipath fading, which usually occur when many terminals are used in limited space such as hot-spot zones. The experimental results showed that the impedance bandwidth (SWR<2) of 33.24 % and the peak gain of 8.44 dBi (at 2.11 GHz) were obtained by the frequency band under 2.5 GHz. Designed originally for triple service band, the proposed antenna, with its simple structure, may easily be mass-produced and may have various commercial applications.

14:00         AB2.2  DUAL FREQUENCY RECONFIGURABLE MICROSTRIP ANTENNA USING VARACTOR DIODES

N. M S, A. C K, M. Pezholil, V. Kesavath, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, India

A varactor controlled electronically reconfigurable dual frequency microstrip antenna is presented. Dual frequency operation is realized by embedding an X-slot in a rectangular patch. High tuning ranges of 26.3% and 15.3% are realized for the two resonant frequencies respectively, when the bias voltage is varied from 0 to 16V. This design has an added advantage of size reduction up to 77% and 64% for the two resonant frequencies compared to standard rectangular patch. A maximum band width of 2.26% and 2.36% respectively for the two frequencies is observed.

14:20         AB2.3  A BROADBAND DESIGN OF H-SHAPED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA WITH CAPACITIVE FEEDING

V. S. Tarange, T. Y. Gite, P. D. Musale, S. V. Khobragade, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University Lonere, Mangaon, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

A H-shaped Microstrip patch antenna with capacitive feed is presented here, overcome various problems in other feeding, capacitive feeding scheme has used which consist of radiator patch and feed strip. The design of antenna incorporates capacitive feed strip which is fed by coaxial probe. Slot is used in the radiating patch along radiating edges of the proposed design to attain the improved bandwidth. Constant radiation pattern with improved VSWR bandwidth of nearly 46%, for operating frequency of 5.1GHz is easily achieved. The effects of key design parameters like air gap between substrate and ground plane etc. are studied.

14:40         AB2.4  U-SLOT STACKED PATCH ANTENNA USING HIGH AND LOW DIELECTRIC CONSTANT MATERIAL COMBINATIONS IN S-BAND

K. Surmeli, TUBÝTAK-BÝLGEM, Kocaeli, Turkey

In this study a uslot stacked patch antenna design is presented. The antenna consist of high and low dielectric materials combination in S band. Materials are commercially available microwave substrates (Rogers TMM3 and Rohacell HF71 foam). The antenna return loss bandwidth is about 52.94%, centered about 3.4 GHz and the fabrication of the antenna is more easier.

15:00         AB2.5  CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP PATCH ARRAY FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION APPLICATIONS

G. Burshe, S. V. Khobragade, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,lonere-Raigad, Maharashtra, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

In recent years, great interest was focused on Microstrip antennas for good integration and good performance. With the continuous growth of wireless communication service and the constant miniaturization of communication equipment, there are higher demands for the volume of antennas, integration and working band. This paper presents A circular polarized (CP ) Circular Microstrip antenna array with multi- band for wireless communications system application which are suitable for 2.92GHz, 4.3GHz, 5GHz triple-band operations. These systems include various combinations of WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) and wireless local-area network (WLAN, 2.8 GHz for wireless video operation).

15:20         AB2.6  CAPACITIVE FEEDING FOR SLOTTED MICROSTRIP PATCH

P. D. Musale, S. V. Khobragade, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,lonere-Raigad, Maharashtra, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

A Microstrip patch antenna having slotted sides with small capacitive feed has studied. Slots on the proposed patch can be used to increase the bandwidth of antenna. It has observed that VSWR bandwidth nearly 45% is easily achieved with the novel patch. A constant radiation pattern with improved bandwidth, for an operating frequency of 4.8 GHz is achieved. The given patch is radiating patch while feed strip couples the energy to radiating patch by capacitive mean. Effect of various parameters such as air gap between substrate and ground plane, probe diameter etc on performance of the antenna has studied .

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         AB2.7  LINEARLY POLARISED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR WLAN APPLICATIONS

P. Salunke, R. Purohit, G. Burshe, S. Khobragade, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,lonere-Raigad, Maharashtra, India;  V. R. Anitha, Sree Vidyaniketan College of Engineering Tirupati, Tirupati, India  

A novel compact linearly polarized square microstrip antenna with four slits and rectangle notches at four corners is proposed . The center frequency of the microstrip antenna operates at 6GHz and it has about 4% bandwidth with VSWR<2. The design and performance of a linearly polarized microstrip patch antenna, for the application in Wireless Local Area Network, are reported here. The aim is to design and fabricate an inset fed rectangular Microstrip Antenna and study the effect of antenna dimensions length,, width and relative dielectric constant, substrate thickness on radiation parameters of band width.

16:20         AB2.8  SIMULATION OF A RECTANGULAR SPIRAL SHAPED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

A. Aoad, E. Korkmaz, Fatih University, Istanbul, Turkey

For some applications it is required to design antennas operating at lower frequencies, have relatively low lateral size and a narrow beam broadside radiation pattern. To that end a new rectangular spiral shaped microstrip antenna is designed and simulated by using of commercial software CST Microwave Studio. The parameters are optimized to have an operation frequency around 1-3.5 GHz, maximum lateral size of 3.5 cm, a minimum directivity of 6 dBi and a HPBW less than 90. The achieved results are promising and are tunable to specific parameters.

16:40         AB2.9  A NEW EFFECTIVE ANTENNA FOR MOBILE HEADSETS

M. Bank, M. Haridim, HIT, Holon, Israel;  S. Tapuchi, J. Gavan, SCE, Beer Sheba, Israel  

The main problems concerned with the design of mobile headsets antennas treated in this paper are low efficiency and the difficulty of installing two antennas or more for Multiple Input-Multiple Output (MIMO) applications. This paper proposes a radical solution to the mentioned problems by avoiding the use of special antennas as radiating elements. The proposed efficient radiating element is the mobile headset printed circuit board. The proposed solution is compared with other classical solutions.

17:00         AB2.10  COMPACT COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED GROUND MEANDERED ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS APPLICATION

S. Raman, S. Mridula, A. C K, V. Kesavath, M. Pezholil, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, kerala, India

A compact Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) fed antenna operating at 2.4GHz with 300MHz 2:1 VSWR bandwidth is presented. Compared to a conventional quarter wavelength CPW fed monopole antenna, the aperture area reduction of the present antenna is 85%. The prototype antenna fabricated on a substrate of εr = 4.4 and thickness 1.6mm is only 22x10x1.6mm3. This much size reduction and impedance matching is achieved by adjusting the signal to ground plane separation and meandering the ground plane of a 50Ω CPW transmission line

17:20          End of the Session

B07 – Adaptive Antennas

Session Chairs: Tapan Sarkar, Magdalena Salazar-Palma

Session     B07

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 13:40-17:20

Room        Anadolu Auditorium

13:40         B07.1  THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF A VARACTOR-LOADED HALF-WIDTH LEAKY-WAVE ANTENNA

L. Kempel, E. Rothwell, B. Shanker, P. Chahal, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States

Maintaining a narrow beamwidth is difficult for a linear phased array antenna comprised of wide beamwidth antenna elements with peak gain direction normal to the axis of the array as the beam is steered close to end-fire. Rather, use of near end-fire antennas, either singly or arrayed, offer the potential for achieving reasonably narrow beamwidth even as the beam is steered near endfire. For applications requiring wide bandwidth as well, half-width leaky-wave antennas offer a potential element. Unfortunately, the beam direction is dispersive. In this paper, a method is presented using varactors to overcome these challenges.

14:00         B07.2  DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR 60 GHZ HYBRID SMART ANTENNA SYSTEMS WITH CONSIDERATION OF INTER-ELEMENT ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS

N. Celik, M. F. Iskander, University Of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States;  Z. Zhang, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China  

Use of directive elements, element tilting, and using subarrays are proposed to reduce computational complexity and cost of smart antennas. This approach, namely the Hybrid Smart Antenna System combines advantages from both the adaptive and switched beam approaches. A genetic algorithm based array optimization procedure that determines the element tilt angles to uniformly cover a given angular range by adaptive beamsteering has also been proposed for 60 GHz wireless applications. In this paper, additional considerations, namely the electromagnetic interactions between the array elements are considered and a more realistic implementation and optimization of the hybrid smart antenna technique is discussed.

14:20         B07.3  GEODA-GRUA: ADAPTIVE MULTIBEAM CONFORMAL ANTENNA FOR SATELLITES COMMUNICATIONS

J. Garcia-Gasco Trujillo, M. Salas Natera, I. Montesinos, M. Arias Campo, M. Sierra Perez, R. Martinez, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

GEODA-GRUA is a conformal adaptive antenna array for satellite communications. Operating at 1.7 GHz with circular polarization, it is possible to track and communicate with several satellites at once being able to receive signals in full azimuth and within the range of 5 to broadside elevation thanks to its adaptive beam. Its complex structure has 2700 radiating elements based on a set of 60 similar triangular arrays that are divided in 15 subarrays of 3 radiating elements. A control module governs each transmission/receiver module associated to each cell in order to manage beam steering by shifting phases.

14:40         B07.4  USE OF A SINGLE SNAPSHOT BASED ADAPTIVE PROCESSING USING A DIRECT DATA DOAMIN APPROACH

T. Sarkar, Syracuse University, Syracuse, United States;  M. Salazar, Univ Carlos III, Madrid, Spain  

The objective of this presentation is to describe a general methodology for adaptive processing using conformal arrays for a single snap shot of data and without any statistical assumption on the noise and the interferences. The antenna elements in a conformal array can be unequally spaced and they need not be situated over a planar surface. In addition the antenna elements can have a directive gain. The goal is to present a signal processing methodology coupled with electromagnetic physics that can deal with non-uniformly spaced directive antenna elements over a conformal surface.

15:00         B07.5  ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC DEGREES OF FREEDOM IN MULTI-ANTENNAS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

M.-F. Wong, A. Gati, J. Wiart, Orange labs, R&D, Issy Moulineaux, France

The channel capacity enhancement is of great interest in broadband wireless communications. The spatial dimension is being investigated with the use of multi-antennas systems. The role of the antennas, their numbers and their positions are to be understood through an electromagnetic analysis. The degrees of freedom of an electromagnetic system are related to the capacity of a transmission channel. In this paper, we investigate all these notions through different case studies using full-wave electromagnetic simulations. The capacity of a multi-antennas system is thus being analyzed on a physical ground.

15:20         B07.6  TOWARD SYSTEM MODELING DEDICATED TO FREQUENCY RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNAS

Y. Duroc1, R. Siragusa2, S. Tedjini1;  1Grenoble INP - LCIS, Valence, France; 2CEA LETI, Greoble, France

With the recent evolution of wireless systems such as cognitive radio, new antennas have to be developed to provide large bandwidth, compact size and especially adaptive parameters for changing environments. The antennas are become more again an essential part of wireless systems. They play a fundamental role both in the propagation and also at a system level. New antennas models must be developed being radically different from those currently available. The potential of linear invariant time models associated to parametric approaches to describe antennas is presented. Based on these approaches, a new method for modeling reconfigurable antennas is proposed.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         B07.7  A LOW-PROFILE OMNIDIRECTIONAL PLANAR ANTENNA WITH VERTICAL POLARIZATION

K. Sarabandi, J. Oh, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States

A novel low-profile miniaturized antenna with vertical polarization and omnidirectional radiation pattern employing two in-phase elements is presented. The antenna operation is accomplished by substituting an impedance inverter capacitor which produces the required 180 degree phase shifter with an open stub. In this way, no conduction current in opposite direction to the radiating pins is generated. The lateral dimension and height of the proposed antenna are λ/8 and λ/40, respectively. A very high antenna gain of 0.5dBi is obtained. Using the proposed design procedure, the performance of further miniaturized antennas will be presented.

16:20         B07.8  MINIATURIZED TUNABLE MEANDERLINE LOADED ANTENNA WITH Q-FACTOR APPROACHING THE LOWER BOUND

K. Mohammadpour-Aghdam1,2, R. Faraji-Dana2, G. A.E. Vandenbosch1;  1KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Having a high-efficiency tunable antenna to cover wide band with good match is an interesting topic, especially in the case when the physical size of the antenna is too small. A novel spherical monopole antenna which has been miniaturized through a couple of Meanderline sections has been presented in this paper. This antenna, with maximum dimension of 0.05λ, has dual band operation with independent frequency-tunable capability in 30 88 MHz frequency band. Thanks to antenna geometry and Meanderline miniaturization technique, the exact Q-factor of the antenna approaches the Thal lower bound.

16:40         B07.9  DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRA-WIDEBAND TEM HORN ANTENNAS FOR GPR APPLICATIONS

A. A. Jamali, R. Marklein, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany

This paper presents the design and optimization of UWB TEM horn antennas for GPR applications. The numerical simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation are performed in the time domain for a preliminary and modified TEM horn antenna. The antennas have some properties which are not suitable for GPR applications. These effects are reduced by optimization. The characteristic of the antennas are computed. The optimized TEM horn antenna is then modeled with the typical GPR environment with earth, and the hidden object inside the earth. The presented antenna can be used in the GPR systems to detect and image buried objects.

17:00         B07.10  GSM/UMTS DUAL POLARIZATION BASE STATION ANTENNA DESIGN

T. Ýsenlik, M. M. Bilgic, K. Yegin, Yeditepe Univ., Istanbul, Turkey;  M. Ciydem, RF Kaan Telecommunications Ltd. Co., Ankara, Turkey  

Base station antenna array is designed to cover frequency range from 1710 MHz to 2170 MHz. An entirely different antenna feed structure which consists of an L-plate capacitive feed, is developed and a parasitic patch is optimized to meet target design specifications. The antenna is +/- 45o dual polarization with dedicated channels for each polarization. A prototype of the antenna element is built and measured to corroborate simulation results. The antenna array for BSA is designed to have an 18 dBi system gain with a VSWR less than 1.5 over the entire frequency band.

17:20          End of the Session

CHGBDJK – Solar Power Satellites and Wireless Power Transmission

Session Chairs: Naoki Shinohara, Kozo Hashimoto, Kristian Schlegel

Session     CHGBDJK

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 13:40-17:20

Room        Dolmabahçe A

13:40         CHGBDJK.1  IMPROVEMENT OF A UBIQUITOUS POWER SOURCE

K. Hashimoto1,2, T. Ishikawa1, T. Mitani1, N. Shinohara1;  1Kyoto University, Uji, Japan; 2Paleological Association of Japan, Inc., Kyoto, Japan

Ubiquitous power source can wirelessly transmit power anywhere in a space. In order to realize this system, we have examined an efficient power transmission system which sends power to necessary places only based on direction of arrival measurement. A simple in-phase transmission array is proposed and evaluated as useful and efficient. This system can send power to multiple receivers. In order to send the power to only necessary points, a pilot signal is sent from a receiver. A low power system is manufactured and evaluated.

14:00         CHGBDJK.2  MICROWAVE ENERGY TRANSMISSION PROGRAM FOR SSPS

Y. Fuse, T. Saito, S. Mihara, K. Ijichi, Institute for Unmanned Space Experiment Free Flyer, Tokyo, Japan;  K. Namura, Y. Honma, T. Sasaki, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Japan;  Y. Ozawa, E. Fujiwara, T. Fujiwara, IHI Aerospace Co., Ltd, Tomioka, Japan  

Institute for Unmanned Space Experiment Free Flyer, USEF, has been studying SSPS as future electricity alternative energy source, which use 5.8GHz microwave energy transmission technology. From 2009, USEF started new research and development project of the Microwave Ground Wireless Power Transmission. This project includes the study for high efficient and thin structured phased array antenna, and the study for high efficient rectenna element. Also this project plans to test ground wireless power transmission as a previous stage to the next space experiment of SSPS. Outline and progress of this project are introduced.

14:20         CHGBDJK.3  MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF IMPLEMENTING PORTABLE SPACE-BASED SOLAR POWER

F. E. Little, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States

A space-based solar power system to supply power for disaster relief, humanitarian aid or other temporary local electric power needs using a hybrid laser/microwave wireless power transmission system is briefly described. A space-to-ground experiment to validate retrodirective control of laser and microwave power transmission beams that would use the International Space Station as the in-space platform for the experimental apparatus is described.

14:40         CHGBDJK.4  ARRAY ANTENNA ARCHITECTURES FOR SOLAR POWER SATELLITES AND WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION

G. Oliveri, P. Rocca, A. Massa, University of Trento, Trento, Italy

An analytical technique for the synthesis of planar arrays for wireless power transmission is proposed whose aim is to maximize the ratio between the power collected at the receiver to the total transmitted power. The array weights are optimized through an analytical methodology which formulates the synthesis process as a generalized eigenvalue problem. The methodology can be applied for arbitrary geometries of the transmitter array and whatever the rectenna shape. A preliminary numerical validation is presented to assess the flexibility and potentialities of the method.

15:00         CHGBDJK.5  ON THE MINIMIZATION OF SIDE-LOBES IN LARGE ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION

B. B. Shishkov, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria;  N. Shinohara, H. Matsumoto, K. Hashimoto, T. Mitani, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan  

Various interesting properties a large antenna arrays with randomly, uniformly and combined spacing of elements have been studied, especially the relationship between the required number of elements and their appropriate spacing from one viewpoint and the desired SLL, the aperture dimension, the beamwidth and TE from the other. We propose a new unified approach in searching for reducing SLL by exploiting the interaction of deterministic and stochastic workspaces of proposed algorithms.

15:20         CHGBDJK.6  EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON ONE-DIMENSIONAL PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA INCLUDING LOSSY DIGITAL PHASE SHIFTERS FOR TRANSMITTING POWER MAXIMIZATION

T. Mitani, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan;  S. Tanaka, Y. Ebihara, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan  

A large-scale phased array antenna will be adopted as a microwave power transmitter of solar power satellites. The objective of the present study is to maximize transmitting power of a large-scale phased array antenna including lossy digital phase shifters. In the present paper, we describe a newly developed algorithm for transmitting power maximization, and demonstration experiments of a one-dimensional 12-elements phased array antenna including 4-bit lossy digital phase shifters. We confirmed effectiveness of the developed algorithm through the demonstration experiments as well as numerical simulations.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         CHGBDJK.7  NEW RESEARCH FACILITIES OF PHASED ARRAY AND ANECHOIC CHAMBER FOR SPS

N. Shinohara, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

A Space Solar Power Satellite/Station (SPS) requires high efficiency and low cost phased array for a microwave power transmission from the SPS to ground. For the phased array of the SPS, we have developed new phased array research facility, new rectenna (rectifying antenna) array research facility, and a special anechoic chamber for the SPS experiment in Kyoto University in FY2010. In this paper, I show the characteristics of the new phased array and rectenna array. I also introduce the new anechoic chamber for the SPS in Kyoto University.

16:20         CHGBDJK.8  MW WPT FOR HAPS AND SPS: CONCEPTS, EMI AND BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS ISSUES

J. Gavan, S. Tapuchi, SCE, Ashdod, Israel

The long distances Microwave (MW) Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) concepts are followed by the presentation of high Altitude Platforms (HAPS) principles. Stratospheric HAPS operation requiring up to a few hundreds kW of electrical power is limited by long sun eclipses. The realization of terrestrial MW WPT systems feeding HAPS could be useful for their long duration operation and for the preliminary tests of more complex and power demanding Solar Power Satellites (SPS) systems. Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) and biological hazards issues will be discussed for selected frequencies and compared for terrestrial, HAPS and SPS long range MW WPT systems.

16:40         CHGBDJK.9  IMPACT TO THE RADIO ASTRONOMY BY THE INTERFERENCE CAUSED BY THE SOLAR POWER SATELLITE SYSTEMS

M. Ohishi, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan

We have conducted a preliminary study to assess interference caused by a SPS to radio astronomy observations, and show that the SPS that is currently planned is highly unlikely to coexist with radio astronomy observations.

17:00         CHGBDJK.10  CYLINDRICAL DIELECTRIC RESONATOR ANTENNAS FED BY A STAIR SLOT IN THE GROUND PLANE OF A MICROSTRIPLINE

H. Raggad, ESEO Angers, Angers, France;  M. Latrach, Universit de Nantes, Nantes, France;  T. Razban, facult de science de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisie  

A novel coupling scheme to cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna is proposed and investigated. In particular, coupling to the resonator is achieved by simple slot firstly and a stair slot secondly exited by a microstrip line. The objectives of this change are to maximize the coupling, increase a gain and miniaturize the structure antenna, achieve resonance at the desired frequency. An approximate and quick design approach is given followed by more accurate design and analysis using commercial software. The antenna was fabricated and tested. Measurements match well with simulation results.

17:20          End of the Session

DT – RFID Technology and Applications

Session Chair: Franz Kaertner

Session     DT

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 13:40-14:40

Room        Dolmabahçe B

13:40         DT.1  INKJET-PRINTED PAPER/POLYMER-BASED RFID AND WIRELESS SENSOR NODES

M. M. Tentzeris, A. Rida, A. Traille, H. Lee, V. Lakafosis, R. Vyas, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, United States

In this talk, inkjet-printed flexible antennas, RF electronics and sensors fabricated on paper and other polymer (e.g.LCP)substrates are introduced as a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags and Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) in an approach that could be easily extended to other microwave and wireless applications. Plus, we will discuss issues concerning the power sources of "near-perpetual" RF modules and the first examples of the integration of inkjet-printed nanotechnology-based (e.g.CNT) sensors on paper and organic substrates.

14:40          End of the Session

EB – Electromagnetic Modelling for EMC

Session Chairs: Levent Gurel, A. Tijhuis

Session     EB

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 13:40-17:20

Room        Galata

13:40         EB.1  MULTI-SCALE MODELLING IN THE TIME-DOMAIN FOR EMC STUDIES

C. Christopoulos, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

The paper addresses a particular feature of EMC, namely the presence of multi-scale objects, which make it a challenging modelling problem. By a multi-scale problem we mean the presence in the same solution space of features which are electrically small (relatively to the wavelength) and electrically large. The brute force approach requiring faster and larger computers has its limits. An innovative modelling approach based on hybrid techniques is needed. The embedding of local solutions around fine features in the form of macro-models and the hybridization of structured and unstructured meshes are described.

14:00         EB.2  EFFICIENT STOCHASTIC EMC/EMI ANALYSIS USING HDMR-GENERATED SURROGATE MODELS

A. C. Yucel1, H. Bagci2, E. Michielssen1;  1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; 2King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

This paper presents an extension to generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) based stochastic collocation methods (SC) for statistically characterizing EMC/EMI phenomena. The proposed extension leverages high dimensional model representation (HDMR) expansions to approximate EMC/EMI observables in terms of finite sums of component functions. The HDMR expansion is constructed by iteratively selecting significant component functions, each of which is approximated by an h-adaptive SC-gPC method. The proposed extension is capable of statistically characterizing rapidly varying/smooth observables pertinent to EMC/EMI analysis characterized by a large number of uncertain parameters.

14:20         EB.3  EMI/EMC MODELING OF PACKAGED ELECTRONICS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

A. C. Cangellaris, J. Russer, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States

The complexity of EMI/EMC modeling at the system level of multifunctional electronics necessitates the use of approximations in the development of a manageable computer model. Such approximations can be interpreted in terms of geometric, material, and layout variability. This variability calls for methodologies and tools for predictive component and system performance and functionality assessment in the presence of uncertainty. Such modeling capability is not available today. This paper explores the opportunities for and potential benefits from the development of such modeling capability in support of EMI/EMC modeling for noise-aware computer-aided integration of multi-functional electronic systems.

14:40         EB.4  HIGHER ORDER FULLY OVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR EMI/EMC MODELING

T. Peng, K. Sertel, J. L. Volakis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States

We propose a fully overlapping domain decomposition method for the analysis of small radiating/receiving features situated in large enclosures for EMI/EMC analysis. The proposed method decouples the relatively dense finite element mesh (representing the small scale RF environment with high fidelity), from the coarse background mesh modeling propagation and coupling effects with enclosures and nearby cable bundles. This overlapping decomposi- tion allows for unstructured meshing of the small features within large domains, providing great flexibility in modeling multi-scale electromagnetic environments. We also demonstrate a higher-order version of the proposed method to further improve computational efficiency.

15:00         EB.5  A WIDEBAND FAST INTEGRAL EQUATION SOLVER COMBINING MULTILEVEL FAST MULTIPOLE AND MULTILEVEL GREENS FUNCTION INTERPOLATION METHOD WITH FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM ACCELERATION

D. T. Schobert, T. F. Eibert, TU Muenchen, Munich, Germany

A wideband fast integral solver employing a fast Fourier transform accelerated multilevel Greens function interpolation method (MLIPFFT) combined with the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) is presented. On fine levels of the employed oct-tree structure, the low frequency stable MLIPFFT is utilized. At a certain wavelength dependent threshold for the box size, the interpolation point based representation of the MLIPFFT is converted into its k-space representation suitable for an MLFMM. On the coarser levels, MLFMM translations are used then, where the MLIPFFT becomes less efficient. The functionality of this hybrid algorithm is demonstrated in an example.

15:20         EB.6  A LARGE DOMAIN COMPLETE BASIS FUNCTION SET FOR CURVED SURFACES

M. Casaletti, S. Maci, Universit degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy;  G. Vecchi, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy  

This paper presents a new set of complete basis functions for curved scatterers derived by the generalization of the recently introduced Linear Phase Functions in the parametric space. This set is able to represent the field radiated by any current on a curved surface in a nonredundant way. The procedure has been validated through comparison with standard RWG based MoM solution.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         EB.7  ON ANALYTIC EXPRESSIONS FOR FAST ESTIMATION OF COUPLING BETWEEN ELECTRICALLY SHORT THIN-WIRE ANTENNAS WITHIN CAVITIES

F. Gronwald, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

Method of moment solutions for thin-wire antenna currents can turn to analytic solutions if the antennas are electrically small. This observation is useful for the analysis of interior problems of Electromagnetic Compatibility when transmitting and receiving thin-wire antennas serve to model electromagnetic sources and victims within a resonating environment. The analytic solutions allow fast evaluation of corresponding couplings but also are of limited accuracy. This is exemplified by the example of two coupled antennas within a rectangular cavity where coupling results between an analytical solution and an actual method of moment solution are compared.

16:20         EB.8  TOWARDS A FIRST TIME RIGHT DESIGN OF THE COMMON MODE CHOKE

A. Roc'h, ASML / University of Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands;  F. Leferink, Thales Nederland / University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands  

There is a need for an analytical model of the EMI filter relating its designable parameters to its final performances in the circuit. The final goal of the model is to support a first time right design of the common mode choke. A new equivalent circuit is proposed where impedances are related to the designable parameters of the choke. The actual performances of the choke can be evaluated via a modification factor of the common mode current. Sensitivities and deviation studies give additional insight on the behavior of the filter once it is placed in the practical system.

16:40         EB.9  A SHORT INVESTIGATION IN THE OLD WALL STIRRING METHOD FOR REVERBERATING CHAMBERS

J. Nijenhuis, Comtest, Zoeterwoude, Netherlands

An old method of stirring a reverberating chamber, shifting a wall, has been simulated and compared with the common stirring methods. The main advantage is that there is no stirrer that has to be placed away from the walls and so in e
ect is placed in the middle of the chamber. A stirred volume of 10 % can easily be achieved with only one stirrer, so only one actuator and maintaining a large working volume. The chamber is well shielded by building the moving wall inside the shielded box and no stirrer means less surface so a higher Q factor.

17:00         EB.10  TIME-DOMAIN INVESTIGATION ON RIBBON CABLE-INDUCED TRANSIENT COUPLING INTO ENCLOSURE

Q.-F. Liu, C.-H. Fang, X.-N. Zhao, S.-Q. Zheng, China ship development and design center, wuhan, China

A hybrid time-domain method is proposed for characterizing electromagnetic interference (EMI) signals in some composite structures with two-wire ribbon cable transmission lines, metallic enclosures, and even lumped active devices involved. In order to fast capture the inner EMI signals induced, Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD), and multi-conductor transmission lines (MTL) methods are combined together and implemented successfully. Numerical investigation is carried out to show the induced current, voltage, and enclosure shielding effectiveness of some practical geometry with metallic enclosure and ribbon cables, and even a cable networks.

17:20          End of the Session

F06 – Remote Sensing of Oceans, Cryosphere and Related Topics

Session Chair: Albin Gasiewski

Session     F06

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 13:40-17:20

Room        Haliç

13:40         F06.1  SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF MICROWAVE BACKSCATTERING AND EMISSION TO SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT: SYNERGY OF DUAL SENSOR OBSERVATIONS

P. Pampaloni, M. Brogioni, G. Macelloni, S. Paloscia, S. Pettinato, E. Santi, Institute of Applied Physics - National Research Council - IFAC-CNR, Florence, Italy;  A. Crepaz, Centro Valanghe Arabba, Arabba, Italy  

A sensitivity analysis of emission and backscattering to snow water equivalent (SWE) is performed using a two-layer Dense Medium Radiative Transfer Model implemented for both active and passive case. To evaluate the potential of the Cosmo-Skymed mission, the study is focussed on X band sensors. Simulations have shown an appreciable sensitivity of X-band backscattering/emission to dry snow for SWE higher than 70-100 mm and relatively high values of snow density and crystal dimensions. Experimental data from CosmoSkymed and ground based radiometers confirmed these results. Synergetic combination of active/passive sensors is suggested for operational use.

14:00         F06.2  A UNIFIED MICROWAVE RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODEL WITH JACOBIAN FOR GENERAL PLANAR STRATIFIED MEDIA

M. Tian, A. J. Gasiewski, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, United States

A unified microwave radiative transfer (UMRT) model is presented for computing the thermal radiation from geophysical media comprised of planar multilayer spherical scatterers of arbitrary electrical size and density. UMRT employs discrete ordinate-eigenanalysis to solve the vector radiative transfer equation. Importantly, UMRT inherits the symmetrization, analytical diagonalization, and factorization techniques from the discrete ordinate tangent linear radiative transfer (DOTLRT) model devised by Voronovich et al., to ensure accuracy, numerical stability, and computational efficiency, along with Jacobian capability. However UMRT extends the applicability of DOTLRT by including the dense media radiative transfer theory and linear temperature profiles within slabs.

14:20         F06.3  ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING FROM TWO-SCATTERERS USING THE EXTENDED PROPAGATION-INSIDE-LAYER EXPANSION METHOD

M. Kouali1, G. Kubicke2, C. Bourlier1;  1University of Nantes, Nantes, France; 2Direction Generale de l'Armement, Bruz, France

In this paper, the electromagnetic scattering from two scatterers is analyzed from a rigorous integral formulation solved by the method of moments (MoM). G. Kubicke has recently developed the E-PILE (Extended Propagation-Inside-Layer Expansion) method to calculate the scattering from an object above a rough surface for a two-dimensional problem. This method allows us to calculate separately and exactly the interactions between the object and the rough surface. The purpose of this paper is to extend the E-PILE method to a three-dimensional problem.

14:40         F06.4  MODELING OF 2D RADAR BACKSCATTERING FROM OIL FILMS ON SEA SURFACES

N. Pinel, C. Bourlier, University of Nantes, Nantes, France;  I. Sergievskaya, Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia  

This paper presents the modeling of the radar backscattering from clean and contaminated seas for two-dimensional (2D) problems. Contaminated seas considered here are made up of homogeneous oil films on sea surfaces. In practice, these films being thin, they are assumed to form two parallel interfaces. In order to deal with this two-layer problem, a so-called "thin-layer" approach is tested and compared with a reference numerical method. Also, a more basic approach is tested for comparison. Last, by comparison with the clean sea case, the contaminated sea detection is tested with respect to the observation angle.

15:00         F06.5  VHF RADAR STUDIES OF THE MIGRATING AND NONMIGRATING DIURNAL AND SEMIDIURNAL TIDES OVER A TROPICAL AND AN EQUATORIAL STATION

K. N. Uma, K. K. Kumar, S. S. Das, Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO, Govt. of India, Trivandrum, Trivandrum, India

VHF radar measurements of winds are utilized to study the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides over Gadanki and Kotatabang. The tidal amplitudes exhibit maxima in UTLS region during June-September (Gadanki) and during March and September (Kotatabang). The vertical wavelength is 3-5km (Gadanki) and 25-30km (Kotatabang), which reveal the existence of nonmigrating and migrating tides, respectively. Brightness temperature shows that over Gadanki(deep) and Kotatabang (shallow) convective clouds. Latent-heat release by deep-clouds is found to be the main source mechanism for nonmigrating tides. This study brings out the differences in tides over equator and low latitude.

15:20         F06.6  ANALYTICAL PREDICTION OF THE POLARIZED DOPPLER SPECTRUM FROM NONLINEAR OCEAN SURFACE AT MICROWAVE FREQUENCY

G. Soriano, Aix-Marseille Universite, Marseille, France;  C.-A. Guerin, Universite du Sud-Toulon-Var, Toulon, France;  F. Nouguier, IFREMER, Brest, France  

This poster depicts the use of combined hydrodynamic and electromagnetic analytical models for the simulation of the polarized ocean Doppler spectrum at microwave frequencies. We consider linear and weakly nonlinear sea surfaces after the Choppy Wave Model and incorporate them in the Weighted Curvature Approximation surface scattering method. Statistical expressions are derived, for the Doppler spectrum as well as for its central frequency and width. Results compare favorably with rigorous numerical computations for one-dimensional surfaces published in the literature. The simplicity of the analytical models provide a valuable tool for the Doppler analysis of two-dimensional sea-surfaces.

15:40          Tea/Coffee Break

16:00         F06.7  A METHOD OF CALCULATION OF ELECTRON DENSITY PROFILES FROM H'(F) TRACES OF VERTICAL SOUNDING

O. A. Laryunin, V. I. Kurkin, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk, Russian Federation

In this paper we describe a method developed at ISTP SB RAS to calculate the electron density profile in the anisotropic ionosphere from vertical sounding data. The input data in the problem provided are magnetic inclination and h(f) traces for ordinary and extraordinary wave. The output data are the electron density profile (or the plasma frequency profile). The program implementing this algorithm has been tested for a great number of model profiles, and the profiles calculated provide a coincidence accurate enough with the original ones except a valley region discrepancy inevitable for any approximating method.

16:20         F06.8  COMPARISON OF NO2 VERTICAL PROFILES FROM SATELLITE AND GROUND BASED MEASUREMENTS OVER ANTARCTICA

P. S. Kulkarni1, D. Bortoli2, M. J. Costa1;  1University of Evora, Evora, Portugal; 2Institute for Atmospheric Science and Climate (ISAC-CNR), Bologna, Italy

The Intercomparison of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical profiles, derived from the satellite based HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements and from the ground based UV-VIS spectrometer GASCOD (Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) observations at the Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS), in Antarctica, are done for the first time. It is shown here that both datasets are in good agreement showing the same features in terms of magnitude, profile structure, and temporal variations.

16:40         F06.9  INVESTIGATION OF RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE AT L-BAND USING DATA FROM AIRBORNE HUT-2D RADIOMETER AND SPACEBORNE SMOS RADIOMETER

M. T. Hallikainen, J. Kainulainen, J. Seppanen, A. Hakkarainen, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland;  K. Rautiainen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland  

Aperture synthesis technique in L-band radiometry is effective in producing good quality data with reasonable ground resolution. However, since the technique is based on using numerous individual receivers, from which the output signals are correlated, the technique is sensitive to man-made interfering signal sources. It is important to identify existing sources of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) to ensure good quality data. This paper describes the work done in Aalto University using available SMOS data and Aalto University's L-band aperture synthesis airborne radiometer (HUT-2D) data collected during the SMOS rehearsal campaigns and national campaigns.

17:00         F06.10  SIMULTANEOUS RETRIEVAL OF SEA SURFACE WIND SPEED AND SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FROM A MULTI-FREQUENCY SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

D. Swain, National Remote Sensing Centre, ISRO, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Derivation of geophysical parameters from satellite measured brightness-temperature (TB) is an important aspect of satellite remote sensing. In this work, an Artificial Neural Network model has been attempted to simultaneously obtain sea surface wind speed (WS) and sea surface temperature (SST) utilizing 8 channels TB (including dual polarizations) of Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer on board Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4) and deep sea ocean buoys in the North Indian Ocean. The ANN obtained values are then compared with actual in situ observations, concluding that the ANN model provides good estimates of WS and SST, within acceptable errors.

17:20          End of the Session

G06 – Distributed Ground and Space-based Observatories for Space Weather Studies

Session Chairs: Patricia Doherty, Anthea Coster, Lee-Anne McKinnell

Session     G06

Type          Oral Presentation

Schedule   Wednesday, August 17, 13:40-17:00

Room        Topkapi A

13:40         G06.1  COORDINATED ARRAYS OF DISTRIBUTED INSTRUMENTS: A NEW WINDOW ON GEOSPACE SCIENCE AND SPACE WEATHER EFFECTS

J. C. Foster, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, United States

MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, United States Geospace is a complex coupled system, and arrays of ground and space-based instrumentation are needed to monitor and understand geospace characteristics and dynamics on a global, real-time basis. Several geospace research topics requiring a system perspective and coordinated distributed observations are discussed. Both the CEDAR 2010 Strategic Plan and the DASI initiative (Distributed Arrays of Scientific Instruments) embrace these concepts. A phased approach to DASI, combining existing instrument arrays to address system-science research topics, is an initial step toward providing the needed global geospace coverage.

14:00         G06.2  IDENTIFICATION OF TIDS AND PLASMA DEPLETIONS USING THE LISN OBSERVATORY

C. E. Valladares, P. H. Doherty, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, United States

The Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) is a distributed observatory that includes GPS receivers, magnetometers and ionosondes deployed in South America. Continuous values of TEC measured by 127 GPS receivers over South America have been used to construct maps of TEC. And, to identify TEC perturbations that are associated with the passage of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) and plasma depletions. This presentation will show initial results on the seasonal/longitudinal distributions of TEC depletions over South America and the relationship of these distributions with the variability of TEC and the occurrence of TEC perturbations associated with gravity waves.

14:20         G06.3  CO-LOCATED SPACE WEATHER RADAR STUDIES OVER SOUTHERN AFRICA

L.-A. McKinnell1,2, R. Athieno1,2, J. B. Habarulema1,2, N. Ssessanga1,2, C. Ngwira1,2;  1Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, Hermanus, South Africa; 2Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa

Recently attention has been given to increasing the