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COMMISSION A

Description

Scope

Electromagnetic Metrology, Electromagnetic measurements and standards


Activities

The commission promotes research and development of the field of measurement standards and physical constants, calibration and measurement methodologies, improved quantification of accuracy, traceability, and uncertainty. Areas of emphasis are:

  • the development and refinement of new measurement techniques and calibration standards, including techniques for antennas;
  • primary standards, including those based on quantum phenomena, and the realization and dissemination of time and frequency standards;
  • characterization of the electromagnetic properties of materials, physical constants, and the properties of engineered materials, including nanotechnology;
  • methodology of space metrology and electromagnetic dosimetry, and measurements for health diagnostics, applications, and biotechnology, including bio?sensing;
  • measurement in advanced communication systems and other applications.

The commission fosters accurate and consistent measurements needed to support research, development, and exploitation of electromagnetic technologies across the spectrum and for all Commissions.


Contact

Contact all Commission Official Members through group maillist (Only accessible if you're a member)
Contact all people who have indicated their interest in this Commission through the Commission Mailing List (moderated mailing list)

Official Members

MEMBER COMMITTEECONTACTEMAIL
ARGENTINAIng. H.F. MAZZA
AUSTRALIAProf. M.E. TOBARmike@physics.uwa.edu.au
BELGIUMProf. E. VAN LILEmmanuel.VanLil@esat.kuleuven.be
BRAZILProf. L. ALENCARsmello@cetuc.puc-rio.br
BULGARIAProf. A. LAZAROVlazarov@bfu.bg
CANADADr. M. GERTSVOLFmarina.gertsvolf@canada.ca
CHILEProf. F. NOELfnoel@das.uchile.cl
CHINA (CIE)Dr. M. LIUliumin@cast514.com
CZECH REPUBLICDr. A, KUNAkuna@ufe.cz
EGYPTProf. R.A. SADEKrowayda_sadek@yahoo.com
FINLANDDr. A. MANNINENantti.Manninen@mikes.fi
FRANCEDr. C. ZERROUKIchouki.zerrouki@cnam.fr
GERMANYDr. T. SCHRADERthorsten.schrader@ptb.de
GREECEProf. G.A. KYRIACOUgkyriac@ee.duth.gr
HUNGARYProf. M. KENDERESSY
INDIADr. A. SENGUPTAsengupta53@yahoo.com
IRELANDDr. M. O'DROMAMairtin.ODroma@ul.ie
ISRAELDr. J. HALEVY-POLITCHaeryapo@techunix.technion.ac.il
ITALYDr. L. CALLEGAROl.callegaro@inrim.it
JAPANDr. M. MUSHAmusha@ils.uec.ac.jp
NEW ZEALANDDr. T.R. ARMSTRONGt.armstrong@irl.cri.nz
NIGERIADr. T.C. CHINEKEchidiezie@yahoo.com
NORWAYDr. H.A. FRØYSTEINhaf@justervesenet.no
PERUing. M. MAYORGA MONTOYAmayorga.ma@pucp.edu.pe
POLANDProf. R. KATULSKIrjkat@eti.pg.gda.pl
PORTUGALProf. CARVALHOnbcarvalho@ua.pt
RUSSIADr. I.M. MALAYmalay@vniiftri.ru
SAUDI ARABIADr. A. AL-RAJEHIarrajehi@kacst.edu.sa
SINGAPOREDr. V.P. BUIbuivp@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg
SLOVAKIAProf. I. KNEPPOivan.kneppo@gmail.com
SOUTH KOREADr. J.H. KIMkimjh@kriss.re.kr
SPAINProf. E. MARTIN RODRIGUEZernesto@um.es
SWEDENDr. J CARLSSONjan.carlsson@provinn.se
TAIWANProf. D-C CHANGdcchang@mail.oit.edu.tw
TURKEYDr. F. USTUNERfatih.ustuner@tubitak.gov.tr
UNITED KINGDOMDr. T.H. LOHtian.loh@npl.co.uk
USADr. S.J. WEISSsteven.j.weiss14.civ@mail.mil

Working Groups

SHORTNAMEResponsibles
A.1Education and traning for Electromagnetic MetrologyChair: D. Matsakis (USA) Members: Dr. A. Agarwal (India), Dr. C. Bunting (USA), Dr. C. Carobbi (Italy), Dr. B. Davis (USA), Prof. Y. Koyama (Japan), Dr. T.H.Loh (UK), Dr. A. Motevasselian (Sweden), Dr. R. Tamas (Romania), Dr. A. Sen Gupta (India), Dr. P. Tavella (Italy), Dr. C. Wang (China, CIE), Dr. S. Weiss (USA)

Reports

Report TitleLink
2002-2005 triennium - Com. A ReportDownload
2005-2008 triennium - Com. A ReportDownload
2008-2011 triennium - Com. A ReportDownload
2011-2014 triennium - Com. A ReportDownload
2014-2017 triennium - Com. A ReportDownload
AP-RASC 2016 - Seoul - Report of Com. A Business meetingsDownload
AT-RASC 2015 - Gran Canaria - Report of Com. A Business meetingsDownload
GASS 2005 - New Dehli - Report of Com. A Business meetingsDownload
GASS 2008 - Chicago - Report of Com. A Business meetingsDownload
GASS 2011 - Istanbul - Report of Com. A Business meetingsDownload

General

This web site is intended to be a resource for those interested in specialized training in the fields covered by URSI Commission A. Click on each category to find the training resources listed, which include regularly recurring meetings, training seminars, on-line training, downloadable on-line publication resources, and professional journals.  Please address any comments or suggestions to the Working Group preparing this at ursi_coma_wg_education@lists.intec.ugent.be

Note: We would welcome inputs for similar web pages for other specializations, such as Communication Systems, Antenna Metrology, Electromagnetic Properties of Materials, Electromagnetic Dosimetry, Location and Angle-Measurement Metrology, Mathematics and Signal Processing. Mode-Stir Chambers, Precision Microwave Measurements, Optical Frequency Metrology, Sensor Development, Time and Frequency Metrology, Transient Measurements in Metrology ​

Training and Education resources available to all fields of Metrology

Short-duration Training Events

Refereed Professional Journals

 

 

 

Definition

Recent decades have seen a proliferation of wireless systems for higher data rates and greater capacity. Antennas are and continue to grow as a major component in wireless communication systems and monitoring systems for health, environmental concerns and realizing current and future wireless communications. Antenna Metrology refers to accurate measurement techniques for testing of antennas to ensure that the antenna meets specifications or simply to characterize it. Typical parameters of antennas are gain, radiation pattern, beamwidth, polarization, and impedance. Calibrated antennas are essential for applications such as satellite communications, Earth remote sensing, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) testing. There is a comprehensive range of facilities for calibrating antennas covering wide range of frequency. These include an open area test site, fully anechoic room (FAR), extrapolation range, spherical near-field scanner and microwave EMC chamber.

Resources

Category to find the training resources listed, which include regularly recurring meetings, training seminars, on-line training, downloadable on-line publication resources, and professional journals

Training:

Professional Meetings:

Web-Page Tutorials:

Open Source Publications

 

Books at Graduate Level and above

 

Refereed Professional Journals

Other Resources

Definition

What is Electromechanical Coupling Metrology?

Congsi Wang

Key Laboratory of Electronic Equipment Structure Design, Ministry of Education

Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China

 

Electromagnetic Coupling describes the interaction between the electrometric field and the mechanical structural factors such as design, manufacture, heat dissipation, and assembly.  This field is important because every advance towards higher frequency, higher gain, higher density, faster response, higher pointing accuracy, and especially miniaturization makes considerations such as heat-electromagnetic couplings within and between the components more critical and complex, as in shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1  Diagram of Electromechanical Coupling

At present, the theoretical system of electromechanical coupling of electronic equipment mainly includes:

  1. Field Coupling Theory: From the perspective of the physical field, this studies the coupling among the structural displacement, temperature, and electromagnetic fields to determine the comprehensive performance of electronic equipment in terms of electrical characteristics, volume, weight, reliability, cost, etc.
  2. Coupled Electromechanical-Circuit Theory: This analyses the influence of structural factors on the circuit performance in the presence of various structural errors and heating effects.  The structural factors involve the circuit layout, structural parameters (thickness, line length, line length, line length, etc.), and manufacturing accuracy (coating, flatness, welding quality, etc.). The circuit performance includes the integrity, accuracy, and precision of the data or signal, power supply noise, ripple coefficient, resonant frequencies, and EMC, etc.  Typical components are T/R modules, microwave signal circuit, and crystals.
  3. Influence of Material Properties: This assesses the effect of mechanical properties on electrical properties, and studies the change in physical properties under different frequencies and different materials. The electromagnetic properties of conventional materials may include magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, etc.  Their structural and thermal properties may be elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, etc.  Of great interest are new types of materials - composite, intelligent, and metamaterials, which often have correspondingly new properties to study.
  4. Influence of Manufacturing Technology: This studies the effect of the technological process on structural and electromagnetic parameters, such as electromechanical coupling and surface roughness.  The core elements of the process may include heating, coating, and welding. These determine the relationship among the errors, intermediate electrical parameters, and electrical performance.
  5. Integration of Structure and Control: This studies the coupling between the mechanical structure and the servo system performance, including the influence of structural factors such as friction, gap, inertia distribution, and supporting structure on the tracking performance of the servo system.  It often involves servo systems, deployment mechanisms, adjustment mechanisms, and/or  active reflectors.
  6. Multi-Scale Effect Mechanism: This studies the characteristics of the electrical, magnetic, thermal, mechanical parameters due to the varying electronic equipment structure over the micro, macro, and cross-scales.  A typical application would be to understand the impact of surface roughness on high-precision waveguides, environment proofing, etc.

Resources

Professional Meetings

Web-Page Tutorials

Open Source Publications

Books at Graduate Level and above

  • “Multifield Problems: state of the art”, Anna-Margarete Sändig, W O Schiehlen,W L Wendland, 2000, Springer Press
  • “Coupled Field Problems”, A. J. Kassab, M. H. Aliabadi, 2001, WIT Press

Refereed Professional Journals

Other Resources

Definition

What is Time and Frequency Metrology?

With the advent of atomic frequency standards (atomic clocks), it has become possible to measure frequencies with extremely high precision and accuracy.   The definition of frequency has been referenced to a microwave transition of the cesium atom, and it is routinely measured to a few parts in 10-16 by individual laboratories.  On shorter scales, frequency standards under development are already capable of measuring frequencies to precisions of 10-18 and even below.  For these reasons frequency measurements may well be the most precise and accurate types of measurements ever made by humankind.  Time, as the integral of the frequency, is operationally measured at the level of nanoseconds over long distances, and at the several picosecond level within laboratories.

The construction of atomic clocks is an experimental art drawing heavily on quantum mechanics, relativity, and statistics.   Conversely, data from atomic clocks has provided important tests of physical theories, and inspired the development of new mathematical and statistical techniques.  The applications to atomic clock development are paralleled by the development of new ways to convert time signals from one form to another, such as from microwave to optical, and by the development of the electronic infrastructure and mathematical techniques for combining and differencing data from nearby clocks.

The high precision and accuracy of atomic clocks has also brought about the need for improved long-distance clock comparisons, referred to as time transfer (time and frequency transfer).   Long-distance time transfer is operationally carried out by use of geostationary satellites as well as Global Navigational Satellite Systems, while fiber-optic and free-space time and frequency transfer are under active development and finding more and more operational applications.   Conversely, GNSS rely on atomic clocks and their characterization for their continuous day-by-day operations.

The field of time and frequency metrology has followed a kind of Moore’s Law in which the accuracy, frequency, and stability of its techniques have improved by orders of magnitude every few years.   We expect this to continue at least for the next decade.

Resources

Resources

Short-duration Training Events

Professional Meetings

Web-Page Tutorials

Open Source Publications

Books at Graduate Level and above

  • “TIME, From Earth Rotation to Atomic Physics”, D. McCarthy and K. Seidelmann, 2009, Wiley-VCH Press
  • “The Measurement of Time: Time, Frequency, and the Atomic Clock”, C. Adouin and B. Guinot, 2001, Cambridge University Press

Refereed Professional Journals

Other Resources

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